signal desktop export messages  - Crack Key For U

If you try to send a message to someone using Signal and they do not have the Signal app installed, it will attempt to send a standard, non-encrypted text. Suppose you have set up an audio track to receive its input signal from a guitar The black keys on a piano correspond to the upper row of computer keys. multiple frequency filters operating on a single signal stream; multiple cryptography algorithms attempting to crack a single coded message.

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Signal (software)

Privacy-focused encrypted messaging app

"Signal Messenger" redirects here. For the company, see Signal Messenger LLC. For its parent organization, see Signal Technology Foundation. For protocol, see Signal Protocol.

Signal is a cross-platformcentralizedencryptedinstant messaging service developed by the non-profit Signal Technology Foundation and Signal Messenger LLC. Users can send one-to-one and group messages, which can include files, voice notes, images and videos.[15] It can also be used to make one-to-one and group voice and video calls,[16][17] and the Android version can optionally function as an SMS app.[18]

Signal uses standard cellular telephone numbers as identifiers and secures all communications to other Signal users with end-to-end encryption. The apps include mechanisms by which users can independently verify the identity of their contacts and the integrity of the data channel.[18][19]

Signal's software is free and open-source. Its mobileclients are published under the GPL-3.0-onlylicense,[12][11] while the desktop client and server are published under the AGPL-3.0-only license.[13][14][a] The official Android app generally uses the proprietary Google Play Services (installed on most Android devices), though it is designed to still work without them installed. Signal also has an official client app for iOS and desktop apps for Windows, macOS and Linux (although registration requires an iOS or Android device).[21][22]

The non-profit Signal Foundation was launched in February 2018 with initial funding of $50 million from Brian Acton.[23] As of January 2021[update], Signal had more than 105 million total downloads, and the app had approximately 40 million monthly active users.[24] Signal has been installed on more than 50 million Android devices.[25]

History[edit]

Signal timeline
May 2010Moxie Marlinspike and Stuart Anderson (Whisper Systems) launch TextSecure and RedPhone on Android.[26]
Nov 2011Whisper Systems is acquired by Twitter,[27] "primarily so that Mr. Marlinspike could help the then-startup improve its security."[28]
Dec 2011 – Jul 2012TextSecure and RedPhone are released as free and open-source software under the GPLv3 license.[29]
Jan 2013Moxie Marlinspike leaves Twitter and founds Open Whisper Systems (OWS) as a collaborative open source project for the continued development of TextSecure and RedPhone.[30][31]
Feb 2014OWS adds end-to-end encrypted group chat and instant messaging capabilities to TextSecure.[32]
Jul 2014OWS releases Signal as a RedPhone counterpart for iOS.[1]
Mar 2015OWS discontinues support for encrypted SMS/MMS messaging in TextSecure, while retaining its encrypted IM capabilities.[33] At the same time, OWS adds encrypted IM to Signal on iOS.[34]
Nov 2015RedPhone is merged into TextSecure on Android and the app is renamed as Signal.[35]
Dec 2015Signal Desktop is launched as a Chrome App.[36]
Oct 2017OWS announces the deprecation of their Chrome App and the release of a new Electron-based Signal Desktop.[37]
Mar 2017OWS transitions Signal's calling system from RedPhone to WebRTC and adds the ability to make video calls with the mobile apps.[38][16]
Feb 2018Moxie Marlinspike and Brian Acton launch the Signal Foundation with an initial $50 million in funding from Acton, who had left WhatsApp's parent company Facebook in September 2017.[39][40]
Nov 2019 – Feb 2020Signal adds support for iPads,[41] view-once images and videos, stickers, and reactions.[42]
Aug 2020 – Sep 2020Signal adds message requests[43] and one-to-one voice and video calling to Signal Desktop.[44][17]
Oct 2020 – Dec 2020Signal starts transitioning to a new encrypted group chat system with support for @mentions, group admins, and more granular permissions.[45] It also adds support for encrypted group calling.[45]

2010–2013: Origins[edit]

Signal is the successor of the RedPhone encrypted voice calling app and the TextSecure encrypted texting program. The beta versions of RedPhone and TextSecure were first launched in May 2010 by Whisper Systems,[26] a startup company co-founded by security researcher Moxie Marlinspike and roboticist Stuart Anderson.[46][47] Whisper Systems also produced a firewall and tools for encrypting other forms of data.[46][48] All of these were proprietary enterprise mobile security software and were only available for Android.

In November 2011, Whisper Systems announced that it had been acquired by Twitter. Neither company disclosed the financial terms of the deal.[27] The acquisition was done "primarily so that Mr. Marlinspike could help the then-startup improve its security".[49] Shortly after the acquisition, Whisper Systems' RedPhone service was made unavailable.[50] Some criticized the removal, arguing that the software was "specifically targeted [to help] people under repressive regimes" and that it left people like the Egyptians in "a dangerous position" during the events of the Egyptian revolution of 2011.[51]

Twitter released TextSecure as free and open-source software under the GPLv3 license in December 2011.[46][52][29][53] RedPhone was also released under the same license in July 2012.[54] Marlinspike later left Twitter and founded Open Whisper Systems as a collaborative Open Source project for the continued development of TextSecure and RedPhone.[1][31]

2013–2018: Open Whisper Systems[edit]

See also: Open Whisper Systems

Open Whisper Systems' website was launched in January 2013.[31]

In February 2014, Open Whisper Systems introduced the second version of their TextSecure Protocol (now Signal Protocol), which added end-to-end encrypted group chat and instant messaging capabilities to TextSecure.[32] Toward the end of July 2014, they announced plans to merge the RedPhone and TextSecure applications as Signal.[55] This announcement coincided with the initial release of Signal as a RedPhone counterpart for iOS. The developers said that their next steps would be to provide TextSecure instant messaging capabilities for iOS, unify the RedPhone and TextSecure applications on Android, and launch a web client.[55] Signal was the first iOS app to enable end-to-end encrypted voice calls for free.[1][56] TextSecure compatibility was added to the iOS application in March 2015.[57][34]

Signal Android icon, 2015–2017

Signal icon, 2015–2020

From its launch in May 2010[26] until March 2015, the Android version of Signal (then called TextSecure) included support for encrypted SMS/MMS messaging.[58] From version 2.7.0 onward, the Android application only supported sending and receiving encrypted messages via the data channel.[59] Reasons for this included security flaws of SMS/MMS and problems with the key exchange.[59] Open Whisper Systems' abandonment of SMS/MMS encryption prompted some users to create a fork named Silence (initially called SMSSecure[60]) that is meant solely for the exchange of encrypted SMS and MMS messages.[61][62]

In November 2015, the TextSecure and RedPhone applications on Android were merged to become Signal for Android.[35] A month later, Open Whisper Systems announced Signal Desktop, a Chrome app that could link with a Signal mobile client.[36] At launch, the app could only be linked with the Android version of Signal.[63] On September 26, 2016, Open Whisper Systems announced that Signal Desktop could now be linked with the iOS version of Signal as well.[64] On October 31, 2017, Open Whisper Systems announced that the Chrome app was deprecated.[9] At the same time, they announced the release of a standalone desktop client (based on the Electronframework[13]) for Windows, macOS and certain Linux distributions.[9][65]

On October 4, 2016, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and Open Whisper Systems published a series of documents revealing that OWS had received a subpoena requiring them to provide information associated with two phone numbers for a federal grand jury investigation in the first half of 2016.[66][67][68] Only one of the two phone numbers was registered on Signal, and because of how the service is designed, OWS was only able to provide "the time the user's account had been created and the last time it had connected to the service".[67][66] Along with the subpoena, OWS received a gag order requiring OWS not to tell anyone about the subpoena for one year.[66] OWS approached the ACLU, and they were able to lift part of the gag order after challenging it in court.[66] OWS said it was the first time they had received a subpoena, and that they were committed to treat "any future requests the same way".[68]

In March 2017, Open Whisper Systems transitioned Signal's calling system from RedPhone to WebRTC, also adding the ability to make video calls with the mobile apps.[38][69][16]

2018–present: Signal Technology Foundation[edit]

See also: Signal Technology Foundation

On 21 February 2018, Moxie Marlinspike and WhatsApp co-founder Brian Acton announced the formation of the Signal Technology Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization whose mission is "to support, accelerate, and broaden Signal's mission of making private communication accessible and ubiquitous".[39][23] Acton started the foundation with $50 million in funding after leaving WhatsApp's parent company Facebook in September 2017.[23] According to the announcement, Acton is the foundation's executive chairman and Marlinspike continues as the CEO of Signal Messenger.[39] As of 2020[update], Signal ran entirely on donations, as a nonprofit.[70]

Between November 2019 and February 2020, Signal added support for iPads, view-once images and videos, stickers, and reactions.[71] They also announced plans for a new group messaging system and an "experimental method for storing encrypted contacts in the cloud."[71]

Signal was reportedly popularized in the United States during the George Floyd protests. Heightened awareness of police monitoring led protesters to use the app to communicate. Black Lives Matterorganizers had used the app "for several years".[72][70] During the first week of June, the encrypted messaging app was downloaded over five times more than it had been during the week prior to the murder of George Floyd.[72] In June 2020, Signal Foundation announced a new feature that enables users to blur faces in photos, in response to increased federal efforts to monitor protesters.[70][73]

On 7 January 2021, Signal saw a surge in new user registrations, which temporarily overwhelmed Signal's capacity to deliver account verification messages.[74]CNN and MacRumors linked the surge with a WhatsApp privacy policy change and a Signal endorsement by Elon Musk and Edward Snowden via Twitter.[74][75] International newspapers reported similar trends in the United Arab Emirates.[76]Reuters reported that more than 100,000 people had installed Signal between 7 and 8 January.[77]

Between 12 and 14 January 2021, the number of Signal installations listed on Google Play increased from over 10 million to over 50 million.[78][79][80][81] On 15 January 2021, due to the surge of new users, Signal was overwhelmed with the new traffic and was down for all users.[82][83] On the afternoon of 16 January, Signal announced via Twitter that service had been restored.[84]

Features[edit]

Signal allows users to make one-to-one and group[85] voice and video[16] calls with up to 8 people on iOS, Android, and desktop.[17] All calls are made over a Wi-Fi or data connection and (with the exception of data fees) are free of charge, including long distance and international.[56] Signal also allows users to send text messages, files,[15] voice notes, pictures, GIFs,[86] and video messages over a Wi-Fi or data connection to other Signal users on iOS, Android and a desktop app. The app also supports group messaging.

All communications between Signal users are automatically end-to-end encrypted (the encryption keys are generated and stored on the phones, not on the servers).[87] To verify that a correspondent is really the person that they claim to be, Signal users can compare key fingerprints (or scan QR codes) out-of-band.[88] The app employs a trust-on-first-use mechanism in order to notify the user if a correspondent's key changes.[88]

On Android, users can opt into making Signal the default SMS/MMS application, allowing them to send and receive unencrypted SMS messages in addition to the standard end-to-end encrypted Signal messages.[32] Users can then use the same application to communicate with contacts who do not have Signal.[32] Sending a message unencrypted is also available as an override between Signal users.[89]

TextSecure allowed the user to set a passphrase that encrypted the local message database and the user's encryption keys.[90] This did not encrypt the user's contact database or message timestamps.[90] The Signal applications on Android and iOS can be locked with the phone's pin, passphrase, or biometric authentication.[91] The user can define a "screen lock timeout" interval, providing an additional protection mechanism in case the phone is lost or stolen.[88][91]

Signal also allows users to set timers to messages.[92] After a specified time interval, the messages will be deleted from both the sender's and the receivers' devices.[92] The time interval can be between five seconds and one week long,[92] and the timer begins for each recipient once they have read their copy of the message.[93] The developers have stressed that this is meant to be "a collaborative feature for conversations where all participants want to automate minimalist data hygiene, not for situations where your contact is your adversary".[92][93]

Signal excludes users' messages from non-encrypted cloud backups by default.[94]

Signal allows users to automatically blur faces of people in photos to protect their identities.[95][96]

Signal is integrating a system that lets users send and receive payments in MOB, short for MobileCoin, a form of cryptocurrency. As of September 2021, the system is in beta and works only in Germany, the UK, France and Switzerland.[97]

Limitations[edit]

Signal requires that the user provides a phone number for verification,[98] eliminating the need for user names or passwords and facilitating contact discovery (see below).[99] The number does not have to be the same as on the device's SIM card; it can also be a VoIP number[98] or a landline as long as the user can receive the verification code and have a separate device to set up the software. A number can only be registered on one mobile device at a time.[100] Account registration requires an iOS or Android device.[21][22]

This mandatory connection to a phone number (a feature Signal shares with WhatsApp, KakaoTalk, and others) has been criticized as a "major issue" for privacy-conscious users who are not comfortable with giving out their private phone number.[99] A workaround is to use a secondary phone number.[99] The ability to choose a public, changeable username instead of sharing one's phone number is a widely-requested feature.[99][101][102]

Using phone numbers as identifiers may also create security risks that arise from the possibility of an attacker taking over a phone number.[99]

Usability[edit]

In July 2016, the Internet Society published a user study that assessed the ability of Signal users to detect and deter man-in-the-middle attacks.[19] The study concluded that 21 out of 28 participants failed to correctly compare public key fingerprints in order to verify the identity of other Signal users, and that the majority of these users still believed they had succeeded, while in reality they failed.[19] Four months later, Signal's user interface was updated to make verifying the identity of other Signal users simpler.[103]

Architecture[edit]

Encryption protocols[edit]

Main article: Signal Protocol

Signal messages are encrypted with the Signal Protocol (formerly known as the TextSecure Protocol). The protocol combines the Double Ratchet Algorithm, prekeys, and an Extended Triple Diffie–Hellman (X3DH) handshake.[104][105] It uses Curve25519, AES-256, and HMAC-SHA256 as primitives.[18] The protocol provides confidentiality, integrity, authentication, participant consistency, destination validation, forward secrecy, backward secrecy (aka future secrecy), causality preservation, message unlinkability, message repudiation, participation repudiation, and asynchronicity.[106] It does not provide anonymity preservation, and requires servers for the relaying of messages and storing of public key material.[106]

The Signal Protocol also supports end-to-end encrypted group chats. The group chat protocol is a combination of a pairwise double ratchet and multicast encryption.[106] In addition to the properties provided by the one-to-one protocol, the group chat protocol provides speaker consistency, out-of-order resilience, dropped message resilience, computational equality, trust equality, subgroup messaging, as well as contractible and expandable membership.[106]

In October 2014, researchers from Ruhr University Bochum published an analysis of the Signal Protocol.[18] Among other findings, they presented an unknown key-share attack on the protocol, but in general, they found that it was secure.[107] In October 2016, researchers from UK's University of Oxford, Queensland University of Technology in Australia, and Canada's McMaster University published a formal analysis of the protocol.[108][109] They concluded that the protocol was cryptographically sound.[108][109] In July 2017, researchers from Ruhr University Bochum found during another analysis of group messengers a purely theoretic attack against the group protocol of Signal: A user who knows the secret group ID of a group (due to having been a group member previously or stealing it from a member's device) can become a member of the group. Since the group ID cannot be guessed and such member changes are displayed to the remaining members, this attack is likely to be difficult to carry out without being detected.[110]

As of August 2018[update], the Signal Protocol has been implemented into WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Skype,[111] and Google Allo,[112] making it possible for the conversations of "more than a billion people worldwide" to be end-to-end encrypted.[113] In Google Allo, Skype and Facebook Messenger, conversations are not encrypted with the Signal Protocol by default; they only offer end-to-end encryption in an optional mode.[94][114][111][115]

Up until March 2017, Signal's voice calls were encrypted with SRTP and the ZRTP key-agreement protocol, which was developed by Phil Zimmermann.[1][116] In March 2017, Signal transitioned to a new WebRTC-based calling system that introduced the ability to make video calls.[69] Signal's voice and video calling functionalities use the app's Signal Protocol channel for authentication instead of ZRTP.[117][38][16]

Authentication[edit]

To verify that a correspondent is really the person that they claim to be, Signal users can compare key fingerprints (or scan QR codes) out-of-band.[88] The app employs a trust on first use mechanism in order to notify the user if a correspondent's key changes.[88]

Local storage[edit]

Once the messages are received and decrypted on a user's device, they are stored locally in a SQLite database that is encrypted with SQLCipher.[118] The key to decrypt this database is also stored locally on the user's device and can be accessed if the device is unlocked.[118][119] In December 2020, Cellebrite published a blog post announcing that one of their products could now access this key and use it to "decrypt the Signal app".[118][120] Technology reporters later published articles about how Cellebrite had claimed to have the ability to "break into the Signal app" and "crack Signal's encryption".[121][122] This latter interpretation was rejected by several experts,[123] as well as representatives from Signal, who said the original post by Cellebrite had been about accessing data on "an unlocked Android phone in their physical possession" and that they "could have just opened the app to look at the messages".[124][125] Similar extraction tools also exist for iOS devices and Signal Desktop.[126][127]

Servers[edit]

Signal relies on centralized servers that are maintained by Signal Messenger. In addition to routing Signal's messages, the servers also facilitate the discovery of contacts who are also registered Signal users and the automatic exchange of users' public keys. By default, Signal's voice and video calls are peer-to-peer.[16] If the caller is not in the receiver's address book, the call is routed through a server in order to hide the users' IP addresses.[16]

Contact discovery[edit]

The servers store registered users' phone numbers, public key material and push tokens which are necessary for setting up calls and transmitting messages.[128] In order to determine which contacts are also Signal users, cryptographic hashes of the user's contact numbers are periodically transmitted to the server.[129] The server then checks to see if those match any of the SHA256 hashes of registered users and tells the client if any matches are found.[129] The hashed numbers are thereafter discarded from the server.[128] In 2014, Moxie Marlinspike wrote that it is easy to calculate a map of all possible hash inputs to hash outputs and reverse the mapping because of the limited preimage space (the set of all possible hash inputs) of phone numbers, and that a "practical privacy preserving contact discovery remains an unsolved problem."[130][129] In September 2017, Signal's developers announced that they were working on a way for the Signal client applications to "efficiently and scalably determine whether the contacts in their address book are Signal users without revealing the contacts in their address book to the Signal service."[131][132]

Metadata[edit]

All client-server communications are protected by TLS.[116][133] Signal's developers have asserted that their servers do not keep logs about who called whom and when.[134] In June 2016, Marlinspike told The Intercept that "the closest piece of information to metadata that the Signal server stores is the last time each user connected to the server, and the precision of this information is reduced to the day, rather than the hour, minute, and second".[94]

The group messaging mechanism is designed so that the servers do not have access to the membership list, group title, or group icon.[59] Instead, the creation, updating, joining, and leaving of groups is done by the clients, which deliver pairwise messages to the participants in the same way that one-to-one messages are delivered.[135][136]

Federation[edit]

Signal's server architecture was federated between December 2013 and February 2016. In December 2013, it was announced that the messaging protocol Signal uses had successfully been integrated into the Android-based open-source operating system CyanogenMod.[137][138][139] Since CyanogenMod 11.0, the client logic was contained in a system app called WhisperPush. According to Signal's developers, the Cyanogen team ran their own Signal messaging server for WhisperPush clients, which federated with the main server, so that both clients could exchange messages with each other.[139] The WhisperPush source code was available under the GPLv3 license.[140] In February 2016, the CyanogenMod team discontinued WhisperPush and recommended that its users switch to Signal.[141] In May 2016, Moxie Marlinspike wrote that federation with the CyanogenMod servers had degraded the user experience and held back development, and that their servers will probably not federate with other servers again.[142]

In May 2016, Moxie Marlinspike requested that a third-party client called LibreSignal not use the Signal service or the Signal name.[142] As a result, on 24 May 2016 the LibreSignal project posted that the project was "abandoned".[143] The functionality provided by LibreSignal was subsequently incorporated into Signal by Marlinspike.[144]

Licensing[edit]

The complete source code of the Signal clients for Android, iOS and desktop is available on GitHub under a free software license.[12][11][13] This enables interested parties to examine the code and help the developers verify that everything is behaving as expected. It also allows advanced users to compile their own copies of the applications and compare them with the versions that are distributed by Signal Messenger. In March 2016, Moxie Marlinspike wrote that, apart from some shared libraries that are not compiled with the project build due to a lack of Gradle NDK support, Signal for Android is reproducible.[145] Signal's servers are also open source.[14]

Reception[edit]

Security[edit]

In October 2014, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) included Signal in their updated surveillance self-defense guide.[146] In November 2014, Signal received a perfect score on the EFF's secure messaging scorecard;[87] it received points for having communications encrypted in transit, having communications encrypted with keys the provider does not have access to (end-to-end encryption), making it possible for users to independently verify their correspondents' identities, having past communications secure if the keys are stolen (forward secrecy), having the code open to independent review (open source), having the security designs well-documented, and having a recent independent security audit.[87] At the time, "ChatSecure + Orbot", Pidgin (with OTR), Silent Phone, and Telegram's optional "secret chats" also received seven out of seven points on the scorecard.[87]

Former NSA contractor Edward Snowden has endorsed Signal on multiple occasions.[36] In his keynote speech at SXSW in March 2014, he praised Signal's predecessors (TextSecure and RedPhone) for their ease of use.[147][148] In December 2014, Der Spiegel leaked slides from an internal NSA presentation dating to June 2012 in which the NSA deemed Signal's encrypted voice calling component (RedPhone) on its own as a "major threat" to its mission of accessing users' private data, and when used in conjunction with other privacy tools such as Cspace, Tor, Tails, and TrueCrypt was ranked as "catastrophic" and led to a "near-total loss/lack of insight to target communications [and] presence".[149][150]

Following the 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak, it was reported by Vanity Fair that Marc Elias (the general counsel for Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign) had instructed DNC staffers to exclusively use Signal when saying anything negative about Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump.[151][152]

In March 2017, Signal was approved by the sergeant at arms of the U.S. Senate for use by senators and their staff.[153][154]

On the 27 September 2019, Natalie Silvanovich, a security engineer working in Google's vulnerability research team at Project Zero, disclosed how a bug in the Android Signal client could let an attacker spy on a user without their knowledge.[155] The bug allowed an attacker to phone a target device, mute the call, and the call would complete - keeping the audio open but without the owner being aware of that (however they would still be aware of a ring and / or a vibration from the initial call).[156] The bug was fixed the same day that it was reported and patched in release 4.47.7 of the app for Android.[157]

In February 2020, the European Commission recommended that its staff use Signal.[158] Following the George Floyd protests, which began in May 2020, Signal was downloaded 121,000 times in the U.S. between 25 May and 4 June.[159] In July 2020, Signal became the most downloaded app in Hong Kong on both the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store after the passage of the Hong Kong national security law.[160]

As of January 2021[update], Signal is a contact method for securely providing tips to major news outlets such as The Washington Post,[161]The Guardian,[162]The New York Times,[163] and The Wall Street Journal.[164]

Signal received criticism from security expert Bruce Schneier, who previously praised the app, for its plans to add cryptocurrency payments through MobileCoin. Schneier stated that this would bloat the app and attract unwanted attention from the authorities.[165]

Blocking[edit]

  Countries where Signal's domain fronting is enabled by default

  Countries where Signal is blocked (March 2021)

In December 2016, Egypt blocked access to Signal.[166] In response, Signal's developers added domain fronting to their service.[167] This allows Signal users in a specific country to circumvent censorship by making it look like they are connecting to a different internet-based service.[167][168] As of March 2021[update], Signal's domain fronting is enabled by default in Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, and Iran.[169]

As of January 2018[update], Signal was blocked in Iran.[170][171] Signal's domain fronting feature relies on the Google App Engine (GAE) service.[171][170] This does not work in Iran because Google has blocked Iranian access to GAE in order to comply with U.S. sanctions.[170][172]

In early 2018, Google App Engine made an internal change to stop domain fronting for all countries. Due to this issue, Signal made a public change to use Amazon CloudFront for domain fronting. However, AWS also announced that they would be making changes to their service to prevent domain fronting. As a result, Signal said that they would start investigating new methods/approaches.[173][174] Signal switched from AWS back to Google in April 2019.[175]

In January 2021, Iran removed the app from app stores,[176][177] and blocked Signal.[178] Signal was later blocked by China in March 2021.[179]

Audience[edit]

Use by activists[edit]

In March 2021, the United Nations recommended Myanmar residents use Signal and ProtonMail to pass and preserve evidence of human rights violations committed during the 2021 coup.[180]

The far right, right-wing militias and white nationalists, used Signal for organizing their actions, including the Unite the Right II rally in 2018.[181][182][183][184]

Use by criminals[edit]

By design, Signal is not able to read user messages, which precludes attempts at moderation. This has been confirmed by independent audits of Signal's algorithms.[185] According to CNN, "[t]he same technology that keeps a conversation private between you and a family member also gives a safe haven to a terrorist in Syria and the person in the United States he's trying to recruit to commit an act of mass murder."[186]

In 2016, authorities in India arrested members of a suspected ISIS-affiliated terrorist cell that communicated via Signal and Telegram.[187]

Developers and funding[edit]

Main article: Signal Foundation

The development of Signal and its predecessors at Open Whisper Systems was funded by a combination of consulting contracts, donations and grants.[188] The Freedom of the Press Foundation acted as Signal's fiscal sponsor.[39][189][190] Between 2013 and 2016, the project received grants from the Knight Foundation,[191] the Shuttleworth Foundation,[192] and almost $3 million from the US government–sponsored Open Technology Fund.[193] Signal is now developed by Signal Messenger LLC, a software company founded by Moxie Marlinspike and Brian Acton in 2018, which is wholly owned by a tax-exempt nonprofit corporation called the Signal Technology Foundation, also created by them in 2018. The Foundation was funded with an initial loan of $50 million from Acton, "to support, accelerate, and broaden Signal's mission of making private communication accessible and ubiquitous".[39][23][194] All of the organization's products are published as free and open-source software.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdeGreenberg, Andy (29 July 2014). "Your iPhone Can Finally Make Free, Encrypted Calls". Wired. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  2. ^Marlinspike, Moxie (29 July 2014). "Free, Worldwide, Encrypted Phone Calls for iPhone". Open Whisper Systems. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  3. ^https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.thoughtcrime.securesms.
  4. ^"Release 5.25.0.13".
  5. ^"Release v5.24.0".
  6. ^https://github.com/signalapp/Signal-Android/releases/tag/v5.23.1.
  7. ^https://github.com/signalapp/Signal-iOS/releases/tag/5.18.3.1-beta.
  8. ^"Release v5.25.0-beta.2".
  9. ^ abcdNonnenberg, Scott (31 October 2017). "Standalone Signal Desktop". Open Whisper Systems. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  10. ^"Installing Signal - Signal Support". Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  11. ^ abcOpen Whisper Systems. "Signal-Android". GitHub. Archived from the original on 30 December 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  12. ^ abcOpen Whisper Systems. "Signal-iOS". GitHub. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  13. ^ abcdOpen Whisper Systems. "Signal-Desktop". GitHub. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  14. ^ abcOpen Whisper Systems. "Signal-Server". GitHub. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  15. ^ abSignal [@signalapp] (1 May 2017). "Today's Signal release for Android, iOS, and Desktop includes the ability to send arbitrary file types" (Tweet). Retrieved 5 November 2018 – via Twitter.
  16. ^ abcdefgMott, Nathaniel (14 March 2017). "Signal's Encrypted Video Calling For iOS, Android Leaves Beta". Tom's Hardware. Purch Group, Inc. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  17. ^ abcPerez, Josh (2 September 2020). "Release v1.35.1". github.com. Signal. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  18. ^ abcdFrosch et al. 2016
  19. ^ abcSchröder et al. 2016
  20. ^O'Leary, Jim (1 November 2021). "Improving first impressions on Signal". Signal Blog. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  21. ^ abCiobica, Vladimir (26 May 2021). "Signal Desktop". Softpedia. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  22. ^ abYoungren, Jan (19 January 2021). "Signal messaging app review 2021". VPNpro. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  23. ^ abcdGreenberg, Andy (21 February 2018). "WhatsApp Co-Founder Puts $50M Into Signal To Supercharge Encrypted Messaging". Wired. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  24. ^Curry, David (26 January 2021). "Signal Revenue & Usage Statistics (2021)". Business of Apps. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  25. ^"Signal Private Messenger - Apps on Google Play". play.google.com. 28 January 2021. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  26. ^ abc"Announcing the public beta". Whisper Systems. 25 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  27. ^ abCheredar, Tom (28 November 2011). "Twitter acquires Android security startup Whisper Systems". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on 12 December 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  28. ^Yadron, Danny (9 July 2015). "Moxie Marlinspike: The Coder Who Encrypted Your Texts". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  29. ^ ab"TextSecure is now Open Source!". Whisper Systems. 20 December 2011. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  30. ^Yadron, Danny (10 July 2015). "What Moxie Marlinspike Did at Twitter". Digits. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  31. ^ abc"A New Home". Open Whisper Systems. 21 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 April 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  32. ^ abcdDonohue, Brian (24 February 2014). "TextSecure Sheds SMS in Latest Version". Threatpost. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  33. ^Open Whisper Systems (6 March 2015). "Saying goodbye to encrypted SMS/MMS". Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  34. ^ abGeuss, Megan (3 March 2015). "Now you can easily send (free!) encrypted messages between Android, iOS". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 3 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  35. ^ abGreenberg, Andy (2 November 2015). "Signal, the Snowden-Approved Crypto App, Comes to Android". Wired. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
  36. ^ abcFranceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo (2 December 2015). "Snowden's Favorite Chat App Is Coming to Your Computer". Motherboard. Vice Media LLC. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  37. ^Coldewey, Devin (31 October 2017). "Signal escapes the confines of the browser with a standalone desktop app". TechCrunch. Oath Tech Network. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  38. ^ abcMarlinspike, Moxie (14 February 2017). "Video calls for Signal now in public beta". Open Whisper Systems. Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  39. ^ abcdeMarlinspike, Moxie; Acton, Brian (21 February 2018). "Signal Foundation". Signal.org. Archived from the original on 16 February 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  40. ^Greenberg, Andy (21 February 2018). "WhatsApp Co-Founder Puts $50M Into Signal To Supercharge Encrypted Messaging". Wired. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  41. ^Lund, Joshua (27 November 2019). "Signal for iPad, and other iOS improvements". Signal.org. Signal Messenger. Archived from the original on 28 November 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  42. ^Greenberg, Andy (14 February 2020). "Signal Is Finally Bringing Its Secure Messaging to the Masses". Wired. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  43. ^Lund, Joshua (12 August 2020). "Accept the unexpected: Message requests are now available in Signal". signal.org. Signal Messenger. Archived from the original on 11 September 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  44. ^Lund, Joshua (13 August 2020). "A new platform is calling: Help us test one-to-one voice and video conversations on Signal Desktop". signal.org. Signal Messenger. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  45. ^ abPorter, Jon (15 December 2020). "Signal adds support for encrypted group video calls". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  46. ^ abcGarling, Caleb (20 December 2011). "Twitter Open Sources Its Android Moxie | Wired Enterprise". Wired. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  47. ^"Company Overview of Whisper Systems Inc". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  48. ^Greenberg, Andy (25 May 2010). "Android App Aims to Allow Wiretap-Proof Cell Phone Calls". Forbes. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  49. ^Yadron, Danny (9 July 2015). "Moxie Marlinspike: The Coder Who Encrypted Your Texts". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 12 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  50. ^Greenberg, Andy (28 November 2011). "Twitter Acquires Moxie Marlinspike's Encryption Startup Whisper Systems". Forbes. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  51. ^Garling, Caleb (28 November 2011). "Twitter Buys Some Middle East Moxie | Wired Enterprise". Wired. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  52. ^Aniszczyk, Chris (20 December 2011). "The Whispers Are True". The Twitter Developer Blog. Twitter. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  53. ^Pachal, Pete (20 December 2011). "Twitter Takes TextSecure, Texting App for Dissidents, Open Source". Mashable. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  54. ^"RedPhone is now Open Source!". Whisper Systems. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  55. ^ abMimoso, Michael (29 July 2014). "New Signal App Brings Encrypted Calling to iPhone". Threatpost. Archived from the original on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  56. ^ abEvans, Jon (29 July 2014). "Talk Private To Me: Free, Worldwide, Encrypted Voice Calls With Signal For iPhone". TechCrunch. AOL. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  57. ^Lee, Micah (2 March 2015). "You Should Really Consider Installing Signal, an Encrypted Messaging App for iPhone". The Intercept. Archived from the original on 3 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  58. ^Open Whisper Systems (6 March 2015). "Saying goodbye to encrypted SMS/MMS". Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  59. ^ abcRottermanner et al. 2015, p. 3
  60. ^BastienLQ (20 April 2016). "Change the name of SMSSecure". GitHub (pull request). SilenceIM. Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 27 August 2016.
  61. ^"TextSecure-Fork bringt SMS-Verschlüsselung zurück". Heise (in German). 2 April 2015. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  62. ^"SMSSecure: TextSecure-Abspaltung belebt SMS-Verschlüsselung wieder". Der Standard (in German). 3 April 2015. Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  63. ^Coldewey, Devin (7 April 2016). "Now's your chance to try Signal's desktop Chrome app". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  64. ^Marlinspike, Moxie (26 September 2016). "Desktop support comes to Signal for iPhone". Open Whisper Systems. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  65. ^Coldewey, Devin (31 October 2017). "Signal escapes the confines of the browser with a standalone desktop app". TechCrunch. Oath Tech Network. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  66. ^ abcdPerlroth, Nicole; Benner, Katie (4 October 2016). "Subpoenas and Gag Orders Show Government Overreach, Tech Companies Argue". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  67. ^ abKaufman, Brett Max (4 October 2016). "New Documents Reveal Government Effort to Impose Secrecy on Encryption Company" (Blog post). American Civil Liberties Union. Archived from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  68. ^ ab"Grand jury subpoena for Signal user data, Eastern District of Virginia". Open Whisper Systems. 4 October 2016. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  69. ^ abMarlinspike, Moxie (13 March 2017). "Video calls for Signal out of beta". Signal Blog. Open Whisper Systems. Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  70. ^ abc
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signal_(software)

Configure your Outlook add-in for event-based activation

Without the event-based activation feature, a user has to explicitly launch an add-in to complete their tasks. This feature enables your add-in to run tasks based on certain events, particularly for operations that apply to every item. You can also integrate with the task pane and UI-less functionality.

By the end of this walkthrough, you'll have an add-in that runs whenever a new item is created and sets the subject.

Supported events

The following table lists events that are currently supported. When an event is raised, the handler receives an object which may include details specific to the type of event. The Event-specific JSON column includes a link to the related object where applicable. The table also notes the supported clients for each event.

Important

Events still in preview may only be available with a Microsoft 365 subscription in Outlook on the web and on Windows. For more details, see How to preview in this article. Preview events shouldn't be used in production add-ins.

EventDescriptionEvent-specific JSONMinimum requirement setSupported clients
On composing a new message (includes reply, reply all, and forward) but not on editing, for example, a draft.Not applicable1.10Windows, web browser
On creating a new appointment but not on editing an existing one.Not applicable1.10Windows, web browser
On adding or removing attachments while composing a message.AttachmentsChangedEventArgs1.11Windows, web browser
On adding or removing attachments while composing an appointment.AttachmentsChangedEventArgs1.11Windows, web browser
On adding or removing recipients while composing a message.RecipientsChangedEventArgs1.11Windows, web browser
On adding or removing attendees while composing an appointment.RecipientsChangedEventArgs1.11Windows, web browser
On changing date/time while composing an appointment.AppointmentTimeChangedEventArgs1.11Windows, web browser
On adding, changing, or removing the recurrence details while composing an appointment. If the date/time is changed, the event will also be fired.RecurrenceChangedEventArgs1.11Windows, web browser
On dismissing a notification while composing a message or appointment item. Only the add-in that added the notification will be notified.InfobarClickedEventArgs1.11Windows, web browser
On sending a message item. To learn more, refer to the Smart Alerts walkthrough.Not applicablePreviewWindows
On sending an appointment item. To learn more, refer to the Smart Alerts walkthrough.Not applicablePreviewWindows

How to preview

We invite you to try out the events now in preview! Let us know your scenarios and how we can improve by giving us feedback through GitHub (see the Feedback section at the end of this page).

To preview these events:

  • For Outlook on the web:
  • For Outlook on Windows:
    • The minimum required build is 16.0.14511.10000. Join the Office Insider program for access to Office beta builds.
    • Configure the registry. Outlook includes a local copy of the production and beta versions of Office.js instead of loading from the CDN. By default, the local production copy of the API is referenced. To switch to the local beta copy of the Outlook JavaScript APIs, you need to add this registry entry, otherwise beta APIs may not be found.
      1. Create the registry key .

      2. Add an entry named and set the value to . The following image shows what the registry should look like.

        Screenshot of the registry editor with an EnableBetaAPIsInJavaScript registry key value.

Set up your environment

Complete the Outlook quick start which creates an add-in project with the Yeoman generator for Office Add-ins.

Configure the manifest

To enable event-based activation of your add-in, you must configure the Runtimes element and LaunchEvent extension point in the node of the manifest. For now, is the only supported form factor.

  1. In your code editor, open the quick start project.

  2. Open the manifest.xml file located at the root of your project.

  3. Select the entire node (including open and close tags) and replace it with the following XML, then save your changes.

Outlook on Windows uses a JavaScript file, while Outlook on the web uses an HTML file that can reference the same JavaScript file. You must provide references to both these files in the node of the manifest as the Outlook platform ultimately determines whether to use HTML or JavaScript based on the Outlook client. As such, to configure event handling, provide the location of the HTML in the element, then in its child element provide the location of the JavaScript file inlined or referenced by the HTML.

Implement event handling

You have to implement handling for your selected events.

In this scenario, you'll add handling for composing new items.

  1. From the same quick start project, open the file ./src/commands/commands.js in your code editor.

  2. After the function, insert the following JavaScript functions.

  3. Add the following JavaScript code at the end of the file.

  4. Save your changes.

Important

Windows: At present, imports are not supported in the JavaScript file where you implement the handling for event-based activation.

Try it out

  1. Run the following command in the root directory of your project. When you run this command, the local web server will start (if it's not already running) and your add-in will be sideloaded.

  2. In Outlook on the web, create a new message.

    Screenshot of a message window in Outlook on the web with the subject set on compose.

  3. In Outlook on Windows, create a new message.

    Screenshot of a message window in Outlook on Windows with the subject set on compose.

    Note

    If you're running your add-in from localhost and see the error "We're sorry, we couldn't access {your-add-in-name-here}. Make sure you have a network connection. If the problem continues, please try again later.", you may need to enable a loopback exemption.

    1. Close Outlook.

    2. Open the Task Manager and ensure that the msoadfsb.exe process is not running.

    3. Run the following command.

    4. Restart Outlook.

Debug

As you make changes to launch-event handling in your add-in, you should be aware that:

  • If you updated the manifest, remove the add-in then sideload it again.
  • If you made changes to files other than the manifest, close and reopen Outlook on Windows, or refresh the browser tab running Outlook on the web.

While implementing your own functionality, you may need to debug your code. For guidance on how to debug event-based add-in activation, see Debug your event-based Outlook add-in.

Runtime logging is also available for this feature on Windows. For more information, see Debug your add-in with runtime logging.

Deploy to users

You can deploy event-based add-ins by uploading the manifest through the Microsoft 365 admin center. In the admin portal, expand the Settings section in the navigation pane then select Integrated apps. On the Integrated apps page, choose the Upload custom apps action.

Screenshot of the Integrated apps page on the Microsoft 365 admin center, including the Upload custom apps action.

AppSource and in-app Office Store: The ability to deploy event-based add-ins or update existing add-ins to include the event-based activation feature should be available soon.

Event-based activation behavior and limitations

Add-in launch-event handlers are expected to be short-running, lightweight, and as noninvasive as possible. After activation, your add-in will time out within approximately 300 seconds, the maximum length of time allowed for running event-based add-ins. To signal that your add-in has completed processing a launch event, we recommend you have the associated handler call the method. (Note that code included after the statement is not guaranteed to run.) Each time an event that your add-in handles is triggered, the add-in is reactivated and runs the associated event handler, and the timeout window is reset. The add-in ends after it times out, or the user closes the compose window or sends the item.

If the user has multiple add-ins that subscribed to the same event, the Outlook platform launches the add-ins in no particular order. Currently, only five event-based add-ins can be actively running.

The user can switch or navigate away from the current mail item where the add-in started running. The add-in that was launched will finish its operation in the background.

Imports are not supported in the JavaScript file where you implement the handling for event-based activation in the Windows client.

Some Office.js APIs that change or alter the UI are not allowed from event-based add-ins. The following are the blocked APIs.

  • Under :
  • Under :
    • Under :
    • Under :

      Requesting external data

      You can request external data by using an API like Fetch or by using XmlHttpRequest (XHR), a standard web API that issues HTTP requests to interact with servers.

      Be aware that you must use additional security measures when making XmlHttpRequests, requiring Same Origin Policy and simple CORS.

      A simple CORS implementation cannot use cookies and only supports simple methods (GET, HEAD, POST). Simple CORS accepts simple headers with field names , , . You can also use a header in simple CORS, provided that the content type is , , or .

      Full CORS support is coming soon.

      See also

      Источник: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/office/dev/add-ins/outlook/autolaunch

      D-Bus Specification

      Version 0.36

      Revision History
      Revision latest
      See commit log
      Revision 0.362020-04-21
      • Fix a typo in an annotated hexdump of part of a message
      Revision 0.352019-05-13
      • Add UnixGroupIDs to GetConnectionCredentials
      • Avoid redundancy in defining interface name syntax
      Revision 0.342018-12-04pwithnall
      • Correct ObjectManager example AddMatch rule
      Revision 0.332018-04-27smcv
      • Deprecate TCP on Unix
      • Deprecate non-local TCP everywhere
      Revision 0.322018-01-30smcv
      • Deprecate hyphen/minus in bus names, with underscore as the recommended replacement
      • Document the convention for escaping leading digits in interface and bus names (org._7_zip)
      • Recommend using SASL EXTERNAL where possible, or DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 otherwise
      • Message buses should not accept SASL ANONYMOUS
      • Document the meaning of non-empty SASL authorization identity strings
      • Document the optional argument to SASL ERROR
      • Document who sends each SASL command, and the possible replies
      • Document the authentication states used to negotiate Unix fd-passing
      • Servers that relay messages should remove header fields they do not understand
      • Clarify who controls each header field
      • Document the HeaderFiltering message bus feature flag
      • Non-message-bus servers may use the SENDER and DESTINATION fields
      Revision 0.312017-06-29smcv, TG
      • Don't require implementation-specific search paths to be lowest priority
      • Correct regex syntax for optionally-escaped bytes in addresses so it includes hyphen-minus, forward slash and underscore as intended
      • Describe all message bus methods in the same section
      • Clarify the correct object path for method calls to the message bus
      • Document that the message bus implements Introspectable, Peer and Properties
      • Add new Features and Interfaces properties for message bus feature-discovery
      • Add unix:dir=..., which resembles unix:tmpdir=... but never uses abstract sockets
      • Don't require eavesdrop='true' to be accepted from connections not sufficiently privileged to use it successfully
      • Formally deprecate eavesdropping in favour of BecomeMonitor
      Revision 0.302016-11-28smcv, PW
      Define the jargon terms service activation and auto-starting more clearly. Document the SystemdService key in service files. Document how AppArmor interacts with service activation, and the new AssumedAppArmorLabel key in service files (dbus-daemon 1.11.8). Clarify intended behaviour of Properties.GetAll. Use versioned interface and bus names in most examples.
      Revision 0.292016-10-10PW
      Introspection arguments may contain annotations; recommend against using the object path '/'
      Revision 0.282016-08-15PW
      Clarify serialization
      Revision 0.272015-12-02LU
      Services should not send unwanted replies
      Revision 0.262015-02-19smcv, rh
      GetConnectionCredentials can return LinuxSecurityLabel or WindowsSID; add privileged BecomeMonitor method
      Revision 0.252014-11-10smcv, lennart
      ALLOW_INTERACTIVE_AUTHORIZATION flag, EmitsChangedSignal=const
      Revision 0.242014-10-01SMcV
      non-method-calls never expect a reply even without NO_REPLY_EXPECTED; document how to quote match rules
      Revision 0.232014-01-06SMcV, CY
      method call messages with no INTERFACE may be considered an error; document tcp:bind=... and nonce-tcp:bind=...; define listenable and connectable addresses
      Revision 0.222013-10-09
      add GetConnectionCredentials, document GetAtdAuditSessionData, document GetConnectionSELinuxSecurityContext, document and correct .service file syntax and naming
      Revision 0.212013-04-25smcv
      allow Unicode noncharacters in UTF-8 (Unicode Corrigendum #9)
      Revision 0.2022 February 2013smcv, walters
      reorganise for clarity, remove false claims about basic types, mention /o/fd/DBus
      Revision 0.1920 February 2012smcv/lp
      formally define unique connection names and well-known bus names; document best practices for interface, bus, member and error names, and object paths; document the search path for session and system services on Unix; document the systemd transport
      Revision 0.1829 July 2011smcv
      define eavesdropping, unicast, broadcast; add eavesdrop match keyword; promote type system to a top-level section
      Revision 0.171 June 2011smcv/davidz
      define ObjectManager; reserve extra pseudo-type-codes used by GVariant
      Revision 0.1611 April 2011
      add path_namespace, arg0namespace; argNpath matches object paths
      Revision 0.153 November 2010
      Revision 0.1412 May 2010
      Revision 0.1323 Dezember 2009
      Revision 0.127 November, 2006
      Revision 0.116 February 2005
      Revision 0.1028 January 2005
      Revision 0.97 Januar 2005
      Revision 0.806 September 2003
      First released document.

      D-Bus is a system for low-overhead, easy to use interprocess communication (IPC). In more detail:

      • D-Bus is low-overhead because it uses a binary protocol, and does not have to convert to and from a text format such as XML. Because D-Bus is intended for potentially high-resolution same-machine IPC, not primarily for Internet IPC, this is an interesting optimization. D-Bus is also designed to avoid round trips and allow asynchronous operation, much like the X protocol.

      • D-Bus is easy to use because it works in terms of messages rather than byte streams, and automatically handles a lot of the hard IPC issues. Also, the D-Bus library is designed to be wrapped in a way that lets developers use their framework's existing object/type system, rather than learning a new one specifically for IPC.

      The base D-Bus protocol is a one-to-one (peer-to-peer or client-server) protocol, specified in the section called “Message Protocol”. That is, it is a system for one application to talk to a single other application. However, the primary intended application of the protocol is the D-Bus message bus, specified in the section called “Message Bus Specification”. The message bus is a special application that accepts connections from multiple other applications, and forwards messages among them.

      Uses of D-Bus include notification of system changes (notification of when a camera is plugged in to a computer, or a new version of some software has been installed), or desktop interoperability, for example a file monitoring service or a configuration service.

      D-Bus is designed for two specific use cases:

      • A "system bus" for notifications from the system to user sessions, and to allow the system to request input from user sessions.

      • A "session bus" used to implement desktop environments such as GNOME and KDE.

      D-Bus is not intended to be a generic IPC system for any possible application, and intentionally omits many features found in other IPC systems for this reason.

      At the same time, the bus daemons offer a number of features not found in other IPC systems, such as single-owner "bus names" (similar to X selections), on-demand startup of services, and security policies. In many ways, these features are the primary motivation for developing D-Bus; other systems would have sufficed if IPC were the only goal.

      D-Bus may turn out to be useful in unanticipated applications, but future versions of this spec and the reference implementation probably will not incorporate features that interfere with the core use cases.

      The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. However, the document could use a serious audit to be sure it makes sense to do so. Also, they are not capitalized.

      Protocol and Specification Stability

      The D-Bus protocol is frozen (only compatible extensions are allowed) as of November 8, 2006. However, this specification could still use a fair bit of work to make interoperable reimplementation possible without reference to the D-Bus reference implementation. Thus, this specification is not marked 1.0. To mark it 1.0, we'd like to see someone invest significant effort in clarifying the specification language, and growing the specification to cover more aspects of the reference implementation's behavior.

      Until this work is complete, any attempt to reimplement D-Bus will probably require looking at the reference implementation and/or asking questions on the D-Bus mailing list about intended behavior. Questions on the list are very welcome.

      Nonetheless, this document should be a useful starting point and is to our knowledge accurate, though incomplete.

      D-Bus has a type system, in which values of various types can be serialized into a sequence of bytes referred to as the wire format in a standard way. Converting a value from some other representation into the wire format is called marshaling and converting it back from the wire format is unmarshaling.

      The D-Bus protocol does not include type tags in the marshaled data; a block of marshaled values must have a known type signature. The type signature is made up of zero or more single complete types, each made up of one or more type codes.

      A type code is an ASCII character representing the type of a value. Because ASCII characters are used, the type signature will always form a valid ASCII string. A simple string compare determines whether two type signatures are equivalent.

      A single complete type is a sequence of type codes that fully describes one type: either a basic type, or a single fully-described container type. A single complete type is a basic type code, a variant type code, an array with its element type, or a struct with its fields (all of which are defined below). So the following signatures are not single complete types:

      "aa" "(ii" "ii)"

      And the following signatures contain multiple complete types:

      "ii" "aiai" "(ii)(ii)"

      Note however that a single complete type may contain multiple other single complete types, by containing a struct or dict entry.

      The simplest type codes are the basic types, which are the types whose structure is entirely defined by their 1-character type code. Basic types consist of fixed types and string-like types.

      The fixed types are basic types whose values have a fixed length, namely BYTE, BOOLEAN, DOUBLE, UNIX_FD, and signed or unsigned integers of length 16, 32 or 64 bits.

      As a simple example, the type code for 32-bit integer () is the ASCII character 'i'. So the signature for a block of values containing a single would be:

      "i"

      A block of values containing two would have this signature:

      "ii"

      The characteristics of the fixed types are listed in this table.

      Conventional nameASCII type-codeEncoding
      (121)Unsigned 8-bit integer
      (98)Boolean value: 0 is false, 1 is true, any other value allowed by the marshalling format is invalid
      (110)Signed (two's complement) 16-bit integer
      (113)Unsigned 16-bit integer
      (105)Signed (two's complement) 32-bit integer
      (117)Unsigned 32-bit integer
      (120)Signed (two's complement) 64-bit integer (mnemonic: x and t are the first characters in "sixty" not already used for something more common)
      (116)Unsigned 64-bit integer
      (100)IEEE 754 double-precision floating point
      (104)Unsigned 32-bit integer representing an index into an out-of-band array of file descriptors, transferred via some platform-specific mechanism (mnemonic: h for handle)

      The string-like types are basic types with a variable length. The value of any string-like type is conceptually 0 or more Unicode codepoints encoded in UTF-8, none of which may be U+0000. The UTF-8 text must be validated strictly: in particular, it must not contain overlong sequences or codepoints above U+10FFFF.

      Since D-Bus Specification version 0.21, in accordance with Unicode Corrigendum #9, the "noncharacters" U+FDD0..U+FDEF, U+nFFFE and U+nFFFF are allowed in UTF-8 strings (but note that older versions of D-Bus rejected these noncharacters).

      The marshalling formats for the string-like types all end with a single zero (NUL) byte, but that byte is not considered to be part of the text.

      The characteristics of the string-like types are listed in this table.

      An object path is a name used to refer to an object instance. Conceptually, each participant in a D-Bus message exchange may have any number of object instances (think of C++ or Java objects) and each such instance will have a path. Like a filesystem, the object instances in an application form a hierarchical tree.

      Object paths are often namespaced by starting with a reversed domain name and containing an interface version number, in the same way as interface names and well-known bus names. This makes it possible to implement more than one service, or more than one version of a service, in the same process, even if the services share a connection but cannot otherwise co-operate (for instance, if they are implemented by different plugins).

      Using an object path of is allowed, but recommended against, as it makes versioning of interfaces hard. Any signals emitted from a D-Bus object have the service’s unique bus name associated with them, rather than its well-known name. This means that receipients of the signals must rely entirely on the signal name and object path to work out which interface the signal originated from.

      For instance, if the owner of is developing a D-Bus API for a music player, they might use the hierarchy of object paths that start with for its objects.

      The following rules define a valid object path. Implementations must not send or accept messages with invalid object paths.

      • The path may be of any length.

      • The path must begin with an ASCII '/' (integer 47) character, and must consist of elements separated by slash characters.

      • Each element must only contain the ASCII characters "[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_"

      • No element may be the empty string.

      • Multiple '/' characters cannot occur in sequence.

      • A trailing '/' character is not allowed unless the path is the root path (a single '/' character).

      An implementation must not send or accept invalid signatures. Valid signatures will conform to the following rules:

      • The signature is a list of single complete types. Arrays must have element types, and structs must have both open and close parentheses.

      • Only type codes, open and close parentheses, and open and close curly brackets are allowed in the signature. The type code is not allowed in signatures, because parentheses are used instead. Similarly, the type code is not allowed in signatures, because curly brackets are used instead.

      • The maximum depth of container type nesting is 32 array type codes and 32 open parentheses. This implies that the maximum total depth of recursion is 64, for an "array of array of array of ... struct of struct of struct of ..." where there are 32 array and 32 struct.

      • The maximum length of a signature is 255.

      When signatures appear in messages, the marshalling format guarantees that they will be followed by a nul byte (which can be interpreted as either C-style string termination or the INVALID type-code), but this is not conceptually part of the signature.

      In addition to basic types, there are four container types: , , , and .

      has a type code, ASCII character 'r', but this type code does not appear in signatures. Instead, ASCII characters '(' and ')' are used to mark the beginning and end of the struct. So for example, a struct containing two integers would have this signature:

      "(ii)"

      Structs can be nested, so for example a struct containing an integer and another struct:

      "(i(ii))"

      The value block storing that struct would contain three integers; the type signature allows you to distinguish "(i(ii))" from "((ii)i)" or "(iii)" or "iii".

      The type code 'r' is not currently used in the D-Bus protocol, but is useful in code that implements the protocol. This type code is specified to allow such code to interoperate in non-protocol contexts.

      Empty structures are not allowed; there must be at least one type code between the parentheses.

      has ASCII character 'a' as type code. The array type code must be followed by a single complete type. The single complete type following the array is the type of each array element. So the simple example is:

      "ai"

      which is an array of 32-bit integers. But an array can be of any type, such as this array-of-struct-with-two-int32-fields:

      "a(ii)"

      Or this array of array of integer:

      "aai"

      has ASCII character 'v' as its type code. A marshaled value of type will have the signature of a single complete type as part of the value. This signature will be followed by a marshaled value of that type.

      Unlike a message signature, the variant signature can contain only a single complete type. So "i", "ai" or "(ii)" is OK, but "ii" is not. Use of variants may not cause a total message depth to be larger than 64, including other container types such as structures.

      A works exactly like a struct, but rather than parentheses it uses curly braces, and it has more restrictions. The restrictions are: it occurs only as an array element type; it has exactly two single complete types inside the curly braces; the first single complete type (the "key") must be a basic type rather than a container type. Implementations must not accept dict entries outside of arrays, must not accept dict entries with zero, one, or more than two fields, and must not accept dict entries with non-basic-typed keys. A dict entry is always a key-value pair.

      The first field in the is always the key. A message is considered corrupt if the same key occurs twice in the same array of . However, for performance reasons implementations are not required to reject dicts with duplicate keys.

      In most languages, an array of dict entry would be represented as a map, hash table, or dict object.

      The following table summarizes the D-Bus types.

      CategoryConventional NameCodeDescription
      reserved0 (ASCII NUL)Not a valid type code, used to terminate signatures
      fixed, basic121 (ASCII 'y')8-bit unsigned integer
      fixed, basic98 (ASCII 'b')Boolean value, 0 is and 1 is . Everything else is invalid.
      fixed, basic110 (ASCII 'n')16-bit signed integer
      fixed, basic113 (ASCII 'q')16-bit unsigned integer
      fixed, basic105 (ASCII 'i')32-bit signed integer
      fixed, basic117 (ASCII 'u')32-bit unsigned integer
      fixed, basic120 (ASCII 'x')64-bit signed integer
      fixed, basic116 (ASCII 't')64-bit unsigned integer
      fixed, basic100 (ASCII 'd')IEEE 754 double
      string-like, basic115 (ASCII 's')UTF-8 string (must be valid UTF-8). Must be nul terminated and contain no other nul bytes.
      string-like, basic111 (ASCII 'o')Name of an object instance
      string-like, basic103 (ASCII 'g')A type signature
      container97 (ASCII 'a')Array
      container114 (ASCII 'r'), 40 (ASCII '('), 41 (ASCII ')')Struct; type code 114 'r' is reserved for use in bindings and implementations to represent the general concept of a struct, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus.
      container118 (ASCII 'v') Variant type (the type of the value is part of the value itself)
      container101 (ASCII 'e'), 123 (ASCII '{'), 125 (ASCII '}') Entry in a dict or map (array of key-value pairs). Type code 101 'e' is reserved for use in bindings and implementations to represent the general concept of a dict or dict-entry, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus.
      fixed, basic104 (ASCII 'h')Unix file descriptor
      reserved(reserved)109 (ASCII 'm')Reserved for a 'maybe' type compatible with the one in GVariant, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus until specified here
      reserved(reserved)42 (ASCII '*')Reserved for use in bindings/implementations to represent any single complete type, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus.
      reserved(reserved)63 (ASCII '?')Reserved for use in bindings/implementations to represent any basic type, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus.
      reserved(reserved)64 (ASCII '@'), 38 (ASCII '&'), 94 (ASCII '^')Reserved for internal use by bindings/implementations, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus. GVariant uses these type-codes to encode calling conventions.

      D-Bus defines a marshalling format for its type system, which is used in D-Bus messages. This is not the only possible marshalling format for the type system: for instance, GVariant (part of GLib) re-uses the D-Bus type system but implements an alternative marshalling format.

      Given a type signature, a block of bytes can be converted into typed values. This section describes the format of the block of bytes. Byte order and alignment issues are handled uniformly for all D-Bus types.

      A block of bytes has an associated byte order. The byte order has to be discovered in some way; for D-Bus messages, the byte order is part of the message header as described in the section called “Message Format”. For now, assume that the byte order is known to be either little endian or big endian.

      Each value in a block of bytes is aligned "naturally," for example 4-byte values are aligned to a 4-byte boundary, and 8-byte values to an 8-byte boundary. Boundaries are calculated globally, with respect to the first byte in the message. To properly align a value, alignment padding may be necessary before the value. The alignment padding must always be the minimum required padding to properly align the following value; and it must always be made up of nul bytes. The alignment padding must not be left uninitialized (it can't contain garbage), and more padding than required must not be used.

      As an exception to natural alignment, and values are always aligned to an 8-byte boundary, regardless of the alignments of their contents.

      To marshal and unmarshal fixed types, you simply read one value from the data block corresponding to each type code in the signature. All signed integer values are encoded in two's complement, DOUBLE values are IEEE 754 double-precision floating-point, and BOOLEAN values are encoded in 32 bits (of which only the least significant bit is used).

      The string-like types (STRING, OBJECT_PATH and SIGNATURE) are all marshalled as a fixed-length unsigned integer giving the length of the variable part, followed by nonzero bytes of UTF-8 text, followed by a single zero (nul) byte which is not considered to be part of the text. The alignment of the string-like type is the same as the alignment of : any padding required for appears immediately before itself. There is never any alignment padding between and the string text, or between the string text and the trailing nul. The alignment padding for the next value in the message (if there is one) starts after the trailing nul.

      For the STRING and OBJECT_PATH types, is encoded in 4 bytes (a ), leading to 4-byte alignment. For the SIGNATURE type, is encoded as a single byte (a ). As a result, alignment padding is never required before a SIGNATURE.

      For example, if the current position is a multiple of 8 bytes from the beginning of a little-endian message, strings ‘foo’, ‘+’ and ‘bar’ would be serialized in sequence as follows:

      no padding required, we are already at a multiple of 4 0x03 0x00 0x00 0x00 length of ‘foo’ = 3 0x66 0x6f 0x6f ‘foo’ 0x00 trailing nulno padding required, we are already at a multiple of 4 0x01 0x00 0x00 0x00 length of ‘+’ = 1 0x2b ‘+’ 0x00 trailing nul 0x00 0x00 2 bytes of padding to reach next multiple of 4 0x03 0x00 0x00 0x00 length of ‘bar’ = 3 0x62 0x61 0x72 ‘bar’ 0x00 trailing nul

      Arrays are marshalled as a giving the length of the array data in bytes, followed by alignment padding to the alignment boundary of the array element type, followed by the bytes of the array elements marshalled in sequence. does not include the padding after the length, or any padding after the last element. i.e. should be divisible by the number of elements in the array.

      For instance, if the current position in the message is a multiple of 8 bytes and the byte-order is big-endian, an array containing only the 64-bit integer 5 would be marshalled as:

      00 00 00 08 = 8 bytes of data 00 00 00 00 padding to 8-byte boundary 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 05 first element = 5

      Arrays have a maximum length defined to be 2 to the 26th power or 67108864 (64 MiB). Implementations must not send or accept arrays exceeding this length.

      Structs and dict entries are marshalled in the same way as their contents, but their alignment is always to an 8-byte boundary, even if their contents would normally be less strictly aligned.

      Variants are marshalled as the of the contents (which must be a single complete type), followed by a marshalled value with the type given by that signature. The variant has the same 1-byte alignment as the signature, which means that alignment padding before a variant is never needed. Use of variants must not cause a total message depth to be larger than 64, including other container types such as structures. (See Valid Signatures.)

      Summary of D-Bus marshalling

      Given all this, the types are marshaled on the wire as follows:

      Conventional NameEncodingAlignment
      Not applicable; cannot be marshaled.N/A
      A single 8-bit byte.1
      As for , but only 0 and 1 are valid values.4
      16-bit signed integer in the message's byte order.2
      16-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order.2
      32-bit signed integer in the message's byte order.4
      32-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order.4
      64-bit signed integer in the message's byte order.8
      64-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order.8
      64-bit IEEE 754 double in the message's byte order.8
      A indicating the string's length in bytes excluding its terminating nul, followed by non-nul string data of the given length, followed by a terminating nul byte. 4 (for the length)
      Exactly the same as except the content must be a valid object path (see above). 4 (for the length)
      The same as except the length is a single byte (thus signatures have a maximum length of 255) and the content must be a valid signature (see above). 1
      A giving the length of the array data in bytes, followed by alignment padding to the alignment boundary of the array element type, followed by each array element. 4 (for the length)
      A struct must start on an 8-byte boundary regardless of the type of the struct fields. The struct value consists of each field marshaled in sequence starting from that 8-byte alignment boundary. 8
      The marshaled of a single complete type, followed by a marshaled value with the type given in the signature. 1 (alignment of the signature)
      Identical to STRUCT. 8
      32-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order. The actual file descriptors need to be transferred out-of-band via some platform specific mechanism. On the wire, values of this type store the index to the file descriptor in the array of file descriptors that accompany the message.4

      A message consists of a header and a body. If you think of a message as a package, the header is the address, and the body contains the package contents. The message delivery system uses the header information to figure out where to send the message and how to interpret it; the recipient interprets the body of the message.

      The body of the message is made up of zero or more arguments, which are typed values, such as an integer or a byte array.

      Both header and body use the D-Bus type system and format for serializing data.

      A message consists of a header and a body. The header is a block of values with a fixed signature and meaning. The body is a separate block of values, with a signature specified in the header.

      The length of the header must be a multiple of 8, allowing the body to begin on an 8-byte boundary when storing the entire message in a single buffer. If the header does not naturally end on an 8-byte boundary up to 7 bytes of nul-initialized alignment padding must be added.

      The message body need not end on an 8-byte boundary.

      The maximum length of a message, including header, header alignment padding, and body is 2 to the 27th power or 134217728 (128 MiB). Implementations must not send or accept messages exceeding this size.

      The signature of the header is:

      "yyyyuua(yv)"

      Written out more readably, this is:

      BYTE, BYTE, BYTE, BYTE, UINT32, UINT32, ARRAY of STRUCT of (BYTE,VARIANT)

      These values have the following meanings:

      ValueDescription
      1st Endianness flag; ASCII 'l' for little-endian or ASCII 'B' for big-endian. Both header and body are in this endianness.
      2nd Message type. Unknown types must be ignored. Currently-defined types are described below.
      3rd Bitwise OR of flags. Unknown flags must be ignored. Currently-defined flags are described below.
      4th Major protocol version of the sending application. If the major protocol version of the receiving application does not match, the applications will not be able to communicate and the D-Bus connection must be disconnected. The major protocol version for this version of the specification is 1.
      1st Length in bytes of the message body, starting from the end of the header. The header ends after its alignment padding to an 8-boundary.
      2nd The serial of this message, used as a cookie by the sender to identify the reply corresponding to this request. This must not be zero.
      of of (,)An array of zero or more header fields where the byte is the field code, and the variant is the field value. The message type determines which fields are required.

      Message types that can appear in the second byte of the header are:

      Conventional nameDecimal valueDescription
      0This is an invalid type.
      1Method call. This message type may prompt a reply.
      2Method reply with returned data.
      3Error reply. If the first argument exists and is a string, it is an error message.
      4Signal emission.

      Flags that can appear in the third byte of the header:

      Conventional nameHex valueDescription
      0x1

      This message does not expect method return replies or error replies, even if it is of a type that can have a reply; the reply should be omitted.

      Note that METHOD_CALL is the only message type currently defined in this specification that can expect a reply, so the presence or absence of this flag in the other three message types that are currently documented is meaningless: replies to those message types should not be sent, whether this flag is present or not.

      0x2The bus must not launch an owner for the destination name in response to this message.
      0x4

      This flag may be set on a method call message to inform the receiving side that the caller is prepared to wait for interactive authorization, which might take a considerable time to complete. For instance, if this flag is set, it would be appropriate to query the user for passwords or confirmation via Polkit or a similar framework.

      This flag is only useful when unprivileged code calls a more privileged method call, and an authorization framework is deployed that allows possibly interactive authorization. If no such framework is deployed it has no effect. This flag should not be set by default by client implementations. If it is set, the caller should also set a suitably long timeout on the method call to make sure the user interaction may complete. This flag is only valid for method call messages, and shall be ignored otherwise.

      Interaction that takes place as a part of the effect of the method being called is outside the scope of this flag, even if it could also be characterized as authentication or authorization. For instance, in a method call that directs a network management service to attempt to connect to a virtual private network, this flag should control how the network management service makes the decision "is this user allowed to change system network configuration?", but it should not affect how or whether the network management service interacts with the user to obtain the credentials that are required for access to the VPN.

      If a this flag is not set on a method call, and a service determines that the requested operation is not allowed without interactive authorization, but could be allowed after successful interactive authorization, it may return the error.

      The absence of this flag does not guarantee that interactive authorization will not be applied, since existing services that pre-date this flag might already use interactive authorization. However, existing D-Bus APIs that will use interactive authorization should document that the call may take longer than usual, and new D-Bus APIs should avoid interactive authorization in the absence of this flag.

      The array at the end of the header contains header fields, where each field is a 1-byte field code followed by a field value. A header must contain the required header fields for its message type, and zero or more of any optional header fields. Future versions of this protocol specification may add new fields. Implementations must not invent their own header fields; only changes to this specification may introduce new header fields.

      If an implementation sees a header field code that it does not expect, it must accept and ignore that field, as it will be part of a new (but compatible) version of this specification. This also applies to known header fields appearing in unexpected messages, for example: if a signal has a reply serial it must be ignored even though it has no meaning as of this version of the spec.

      However, implementations must not send or accept known header fields with the wrong type stored in the field value. So for example a message with an field of type would be considered corrupt.

      Server implementations that might relay messages from one mutually-distrustful client to another, such as the message bus, should remove header fields that the server does not recognise. However, a client must assume that the server has not done so, unless it has evidence to the contrary, such as having checked for the message bus feature.

      New header fields controlled by the message bus (similar to ) might be added to this specification in future. Such message fields should normally only be added to messages that are going to be delivered to a client that specifically requested them (for example by calling some method), and the message bus should remove those header fields from all other messages that it relays. This design principle serves two main purposes. One is to avoid unnecessary memory and throughput overhead when delivering messages to clients that are not interested in the new header fields. The other is to give clients a reason to call the method that requests those messages (otherwise, the clients would not work). This is desirable because looking at the reply to that method call is a natural way to check that the message bus guarantees to filter out faked header fields that might have been sent by malicious peers.

      Here are the currently-defined header fields:

      Conventional NameDecimal CodeTypeRequired InDescription
      0N/Anot allowedNot a valid field name (error if it appears in a message)
      1, The object to send a call to, or the object a signal is emitted from. The special path is reserved; implementations should not send messages with this path, and the reference implementation of the bus daemon will disconnect any application that attempts to do so. This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      2 The interface to invoke a method call on, or that a signal is emitted from. Optional for method calls, required for signals. The special interface is reserved; implementations should not send messages with this interface, and the reference implementation of the bus daemon will disconnect any application that attempts to do so. This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      3, The member, either the method name or signal name. This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      4The name of the error that occurred, for errors
      5, The serial number of the message this message is a reply to. (The serial number is the second in the header.) This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      6optional The name of the connection this message is intended for. This field is usually only meaningful in combination with the message bus (see the section called “Message Bus Specification”), but other servers may define their own meanings for it. This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      7optionalUnique name of the sending connection. This field is usually only meaningful in combination with the message bus, but other servers may define their own meanings for it. On a message bus, this header field is controlled by the message bus, so it is as reliable and trustworthy as the message bus itself. Otherwise, this header field is controlled by the message sender, unless there is out-of-band information that indicates otherwise.
      8optional The signature of the message body. If omitted, it is assumed to be the empty signature "" (i.e. the body must be 0-length). This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      9optionalThe number of Unix file descriptors that accompany the message. If omitted, it is assumed that no Unix file descriptors accompany the message. The actual file descriptors need to be transferred via platform specific mechanism out-of-band. They must be sent at the same time as part of the message itself. They may not be sent before the first byte of the message itself is transferred or after the last byte of the message itself. This header field is controlled by the message sender.

      The various names in D-Bus messages have some restrictions.

      There is a maximum name length of 255 which applies to bus names, interfaces, and members.

      Interfaces have names with type , meaning that they must be valid UTF-8. However, there are also some additional restrictions that apply to interface names specifically:

      • Interface names are composed of 2 or more elements separated by a period ('.') character. All elements must contain at least one character.

      • Each element must only contain the ASCII characters "[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_" and must not begin with a digit.

      • Interface names must not exceed the maximum name length.

      Interface names should start with the reversed DNS domain name of the author of the interface (in lower-case), like interface names in Java. It is conventional for the rest of the interface name to consist of words run together, with initial capital letters on all words ("CamelCase"). Several levels of hierarchy can be used. It is also a good idea to include the major version of the interface in the name, and increment it if incompatible changes are made; this way, a single object can implement several versions of an interface in parallel, if necessary.

      For instance, if the owner of is developing a D-Bus API for a music player, they might define interfaces called , and .

      If the author's DNS domain name contains hyphen/minus characters ('-'), which are not allowed in D-Bus interface names, they should be replaced by underscores. If the DNS domain name contains a digit immediately following a period ('.'), which is also not allowed in interface names), the interface name should add an underscore before that digit. For example, if the owner of 7-zip.org defined an interface for out-of-process plugins, it might be named .

      D-Bus does not distinguish between the concepts that would be called classes and interfaces in Java: either can be identified on D-Bus by an interface name.

      Connections have one or more bus names associated with them. A connection has exactly one bus name that is a unique connection name. The unique connection name remains with the connection for its entire lifetime. A bus name is of type , meaning that it must be valid UTF-8. However, there are also some additional restrictions that apply to bus names specifically:

      • Bus names that start with a colon (':') character are unique connection names. Other bus names are called well-known bus names.

      • Bus names are composed of 1 or more elements separated by a period ('.') character. All elements must contain at least one character.

      • Each element must only contain the ASCII characters "[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_-", with "-" discouraged in new bus names. Only elements that are part of a unique connection name may begin with a digit, elements in other bus names must not begin with a digit.

      • Bus names must contain at least one '.' (period) character (and thus at least two elements).

      • Bus names must not begin with a '.' (period) character.

      • Bus names must not exceed the maximum name length.

      Note that the hyphen ('-') character is allowed in bus names but not in interface names. It is also problematic or not allowed in various specifications and APIs that refer to D-Bus, such as Flatpak application IDs, the interface in the Desktop Entry Specification, and the convention that an application's "main" interface and object path resemble its bus name. To avoid situations that require special-case handling, it is recommended that new D-Bus names consistently replace hyphens with underscores.

      Like interface names, well-known bus names should start with the reversed DNS domain name of the author of the interface (in lower-case), and it is conventional for the rest of the well-known bus name to consist of words run together, with initial capital letters. As with interface names, including a version number in well-known bus names is a good idea; it's possible to have the well-known bus name for more than one version simultaneously if backwards compatibility is required.

      As with interface names, if the author's DNS domain name contains hyphen/minus characters they should be replaced by underscores, and if it contains leading digits they should be escaped by prepending an underscore. For example, if the owner of 7-zip.org used a D-Bus name for an archiving application, it might be named .

      If a well-known bus name implies the presence of a "main" interface, that "main" interface is often given the same name as the well-known bus name, and situated at the corresponding object path. For instance, if the owner of is developing a D-Bus API for a music player, they might define that any application that takes the well-known name should have an object at the object path which implements the interface .

      Member (i.e. method or signal) names:

      • Must only contain the ASCII characters "[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_" and may not begin with a digit.

      • Must not contain the '.' (period) character.

      • Must not exceed the maximum name length.

      • Must be at least 1 byte in length.

      It is conventional for member names on D-Bus to consist of capitalized words with no punctuation ("camel-case"). Method names should usually be verbs, such as , and signal names should usually be a description of an event, such as .

      Error names have the same restrictions as interface names.

      Error names have the same naming conventions as interface names, and often contain ; for instance, the owner of might define the errors and . The errors defined by D-Bus itself, such as , follow a similar pattern.

      Each of the message types (, , , and ) has its own expected usage conventions and header fields. This section describes these conventions.

      Some messages invoke an operation on a remote object. These are called method call messages and have the type tag . Such messages map naturally to methods on objects in a typical program.

      A method call message is required to have a header field indicating the name of the method. Optionally, the message has an field giving the interface the method is a part of. Including the in all method call messages is strongly recommended.

      In the absence of an field, if two or more interfaces on the same object have a method with the same name, it is undefined which of those methods will be invoked. Implementations may choose to either return an error, or deliver the message as though it had an arbitrary one of those interfaces.

      In some situations (such as the well-known system bus), messages are filtered through an access-control list external to the remote object implementation. If that filter rejects certain messages by matching their interface, or accepts only messages to specific interfaces, it must also reject messages that have no : otherwise, malicious applications could use this to bypass the filter.

      Method call messages also include a field indicating the object to invoke the method on. If the call is passing through a message bus, the message will also have a field giving the name of the connection to receive the message.

      When an application handles a method call message, it is required to return a reply. The reply is identified by a header field indicating the serial number of the being replied to. The reply can have one of two types; either or .

      If the reply has type , the arguments to the reply message are the return value(s) or "out parameters" of the method call. If the reply has type , then an "exception" has been thrown, and the call fails; no return value will be provided. It makes no sense to send multiple replies to the same method call.

      Even if a method call has no return values, a reply is required, so the caller will know the method was successfully processed.

      The or reply message must have the header field.

      If a message has the flag , then the application receiving the method should not send the reply message (regardless of whether the reply would have been or ).

      Unless a message has the flag , if the destination name does not exist then a program to own the destination name will be started (activated) before the message is delivered. See the section called “Message Bus Starting Services (Activation)”. The message will be held until the new program is successfully started or has failed to start; in case of failure, an error will be returned. This flag is only relevant in the context of a message bus, it is ignored during one-to-one communication with no intermediate bus.

      Mapping method calls to native APIs

      APIs for D-Bus may map method calls to a method call in a specific programming language, such as C++, or may map a method call written in an IDL to a D-Bus message.

      In APIs of this nature, arguments to a method are often termed "in" (which implies sent in the ), or "out" (which implies returned in the ). Some APIs such as CORBA also have "inout" arguments, which are both sent and received, i.e. the caller passes in a value which is modified. Mapped to D-Bus, an "inout" argument is equivalent to an "in" argument, followed by an "out" argument. You can't pass things "by reference" over the wire, so "inout" is purely an illusion of the in-process API.

      Given a method with zero or one return values, followed by zero or more arguments, where each argument may be "in", "out", or "inout", the caller constructs a message by appending each "in" or "inout" argument, in order. "out" arguments are not represented in the caller's message.

      The recipient constructs a reply by appending first the return value if any, then each "out" or "inout" argument, in order. "in" arguments are not represented in the reply message.

      Error replies are normally mapped to exceptions in languages that have exceptions.

      In converting from native APIs to D-Bus, it is perhaps nice to map D-Bus naming conventions ("FooBar") to native conventions such as "fooBar" or "foo_bar" automatically. This is OK as long as you can say that the native API is one that was specifically written for D-Bus. It makes the most sense when writing object implementations that will be exported over the bus. Object proxies used to invoke remote D-Bus objects probably need the ability to call any D-Bus method, and thus a magic name mapping like this could be a problem.

      This specification doesn't require anything of native API bindings; the preceding is only a suggested convention for consistency among bindings.

      Unlike method calls, signal emissions have no replies. A signal emission is simply a single message of type . It must have three header fields: giving the object the signal was emitted from, plus and giving the fully-qualified name of the signal. The header is required for signals, though it is optional for method calls.

      Messages of type are most commonly replies to a , but may be returned in reply to any kind of message. The message bus for example will return an in reply to a signal emission if the bus does not have enough memory to send the signal.

      An may have any arguments, but if the first argument is a , it must be an error message. The error message may be logged or shown to the user in some way.

      Notation in this document

      This document uses a simple pseudo-IDL to describe particular method calls and signals. Here is an example of a method call:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.StartServiceByName (in STRING name, in UINT32 flags, out UINT32 resultcode)

      This means = org.freedesktop.DBus, = StartServiceByName, arguments are and , argument is . Remember that the field can't contain any '.' (period) characters so it's known that the last part of the name in the "IDL" is the member name.

      In C++ that might end up looking like this:

      unsigned int org::freedesktop::DBus::StartServiceByName (const char *name, unsigned int flags);

      or equally valid, the return value could be done as an argument:

      void org::freedesktop::DBus::StartServiceByName (const char *name, unsigned int flags, unsigned int *resultcode);

      It's really up to the API designer how they want to make this look. You could design an API where the namespace wasn't used in C++, using STL or Qt, using varargs, or whatever you wanted.

      Signals are written as follows:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.NameLost (STRING name)

      Signals don't specify "in" vs. "out" because only a single direction is possible.

      It isn't especially encouraged to use this lame pseudo-IDL in actual API implementations; you might use the native notation for the language you're using, or you might use COM or CORBA IDL, for example.

      Invalid Protocol and Spec Extensions

      For security reasons, the D-Bus protocol should be strictly parsed and validated, with the exception of defined extension points. Any invalid protocol or spec violations should result in immediately dropping the connection without notice to the other end. Exceptions should be carefully considered, e.g. an exception may be warranted for a well-understood idiosyncrasy of a widely-deployed implementation. In cases where the other end of a connection is 100% trusted and known to be friendly, skipping validation for performance reasons could also make sense in certain cases.

      Generally speaking violations of the "must" requirements in this spec should be considered possible attempts to exploit security, and violations of the "should" suggestions should be considered legitimate (though perhaps they should generate an error in some cases).

      The following extension points are built in to D-Bus on purpose and must not be treated as invalid protocol. The extension points are intended for use by future versions of this spec, they are not intended for third parties. At the moment, the only way a third party could extend D-Bus without breaking interoperability would be to introduce a way to negotiate new feature support as part of the auth protocol, using EXTENSION_-prefixed commands. There is not yet a standard way to negotiate features.

      • In the authentication protocol (see the section called “Authentication Protocol”) unknown commands result in an ERROR rather than a disconnect. This enables future extensions to the protocol. Commands starting with EXTENSION_ are reserved for third parties.

      • The authentication protocol supports pluggable auth mechanisms.

      • The address format (see the section called “Server Addresses”) supports new kinds of transport.

      • Messages with an unknown type (something other than , , , ) are ignored. Unknown-type messages must still be well-formed in the same way as the known messages, however. They still have the normal header and body.

      • Header fields with an unknown or unexpected field code must be ignored, though again they must still be well-formed.

      • New standard interfaces (with new methods and signals) can of course be added.

      Before the flow of messages begins, two applications must authenticate. A simple plain-text protocol is used for authentication; this protocol is a SASL profile, and maps fairly directly from the SASL specification. The message encoding is NOT used here, only plain text messages.

      Using SASL in D-Bus requires that we define the meaning of non-empty authorization identity strings. When D-Bus is used on Unix platforms, a non-empty SASL authorization identity represents a Unix user. An authorization identity consisting entirely of ASCII decimal digits represents a numeric user ID as defined by POSIX, for example for the root user or for the first user created on many systems. Non-numeric authorization identities are not required to be accepted or supported, but if used, they must be interpreted as a login name as found in the field of POSIX , for example , and normalized to the corresponding numeric user ID. For best interoperability, clients and servers should use numeric user IDs.

      When D-Bus is used on Windows platforms, a non-empty SASL authorization identity represents a Windows security identifier (SID) in its string form, for example for a domain or local computer user or for the LOCAL_SYSTEM user. The user-facing usernames such as or are not used in the D-Bus protocol.

      In examples, "C:" and "S:" indicate lines sent by the client and server respectively. The client sends the first line, and the server must respond to each line from the client with a single-line reply, with one exception: there is no reply to the BEGIN command.

      The protocol is a line-based protocol, where each line ends with \r\n. Each line begins with an all-caps ASCII command name containing only the character range [A-Z_], a space, then any arguments for the command, then the \r\n ending the line. The protocol is case-sensitive. All bytes must be in the ASCII character set. Commands from the client to the server are as follows:

      • AUTH [mechanism] [initial-response]

      • CANCEL

      • BEGIN

      • DATA <data in hex encoding>

      • ERROR [human-readable error explanation]

      • NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD

      From server to client are as follows:

      • REJECTED <space-separated list of mechanism names>

      • OK <GUID in hex>

      • DATA <data in hex encoding>

      • ERROR [human-readable error explanation]

      • AGREE_UNIX_FD

      Unofficial extensions to the command set must begin with the letters "EXTENSION_", to avoid conflicts with future official commands. For example, "EXTENSION_COM_MYDOMAIN_DO_STUFF".

      Special credentials-passing nul byte

      Immediately after connecting to the server, the client must send a single nul byte. This byte may be accompanied by credentials information on some operating systems that use sendmsg() with SCM_CREDS or SCM_CREDENTIALS to pass credentials over UNIX domain sockets. However, the nul byte must be sent even on other kinds of socket, and even on operating systems that do not require a byte to be sent in order to transmit credentials. The text protocol described in this document begins after the single nul byte. If the first byte received from the client is not a nul byte, the server may disconnect that client.

      A nul byte in any context other than the initial byte is an error; the protocol is ASCII-only.

      The credentials sent along with the nul byte may be used with the SASL mechanism EXTERNAL.

      The AUTH command is sent by the client to the server. The server replies with DATA, OK or REJECTED.

      If an AUTH command has no arguments, it is a request to list available mechanisms. The server must respond with a REJECTED command listing the mechanisms it understands, or with an error.

      If an AUTH command specifies a mechanism, and the server supports said mechanism, the server should begin exchanging SASL challenge-response data with the client using DATA commands.

      If the server does not support the mechanism given in the AUTH command, it must send either a REJECTED command listing the mechanisms it does support, or an error.

      If the [initial-response] argument is provided, it is intended for use with mechanisms that have no initial challenge (or an empty initial challenge), as if it were the argument to an initial DATA command. If the selected mechanism has an initial challenge and [initial-response] was provided, the server should reject authentication by sending REJECTED.

      If authentication succeeds after exchanging DATA commands, an OK command must be sent to the client.

      The CANCEL command is sent by the client to the server. The server replies with REJECTED.

      At any time up to sending the BEGIN command, the client may send a CANCEL command. On receiving the CANCEL command, the server must send a REJECTED command and abort the current authentication exchange.

      The DATA command may come from either client or server, and simply contains a hex-encoded block of data to be interpreted according to the SASL mechanism in use. If sent by the client, the server replies with DATA, OK or REJECTED.

      Some SASL mechanisms support sending an "empty string"; FIXME we need some way to do this.

      The BEGIN command is sent by the client to the server. The server does not reply.

      The BEGIN command acknowledges that the client has received an OK command from the server and completed any feature negotiation that it wishes to do, and declares that the stream of messages is about to begin.

      The first octet received by the server after the \r\n of the BEGIN command from the client must be the first octet of the authenticated/encrypted stream of D-Bus messages.

      Unlike all other commands, the server does not reply to the BEGIN command with an authentication command of its own. After the \r\n of the reply to the command before BEGIN, the next octet received by the client must be the first octet of the authenticated/encrypted stream of D-Bus messages.

      The REJECTED command is sent by the server to the client.

      The REJECTED command indicates that the current authentication exchange has failed, and further exchange of DATA is inappropriate. The client would normally try another mechanism, or try providing different responses to challenges.

      Optionally, the REJECTED command has a space-separated list of available auth mechanisms as arguments. If a server ever provides a list of supported mechanisms, it must provide the same list each time it sends a REJECTED message. Clients are free to ignore all lists received after the first.

      The OK command is sent by the server to the client.

      The OK command indicates that the client has been authenticated. The client may now proceed with negotiating Unix file descriptor passing. To do that it shall send NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD to the server.

      Otherwise, the client must respond to the OK command by sending a BEGIN command, followed by its stream of messages, or by disconnecting. The server must not accept additional commands using this protocol after the BEGIN command has been received. Further communication will be a stream of D-Bus messages (optionally encrypted, as negotiated) rather than this protocol.

      If there is no negotiation, the first octet received by the client after the \r\n of the OK command must be the first octet of the authenticated/encrypted stream of D-Bus messages. If the client negotiates Unix file descriptor passing, the first octet received by the client after the \r\n of the AGREE_UNIX_FD or ERROR reply must be the first octet of the authenticated/encrypted stream.

      The OK command has one argument, which is the GUID of the server. See the section called “Server Addresses” for more on server GUIDs.

      The ERROR command can be sent in either direction. If sent by the client, the server replies with REJECTED.

      The ERROR command indicates that either server or client did not know a command, does not accept the given command in the current context, or did not understand the arguments to the command. This allows the protocol to be extended; a client or server can send a command present or permitted only in new protocol versions, and if an ERROR is received instead of an appropriate response, fall back to using some other technique.

      If an ERROR is sent, the server or client that sent the error must continue as if the command causing the ERROR had never been received. However, the the server or client receiving the error should try something other than whatever caused the error; if only canceling/rejecting the authentication.

      If the D-Bus protocol changes incompatibly at some future time, applications implementing the new protocol would probably be able to check for support of the new protocol by sending a new command and receiving an ERROR from applications that don't understand it. Thus the ERROR feature of the auth protocol is an escape hatch that lets us negotiate extensions or changes to the D-Bus protocol in the future.

      NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD Command

      The NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD command is sent by the client to the server. The server replies with AGREE_UNIX_FD or ERROR.

      The NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD command indicates that the client supports Unix file descriptor passing. This command may only be sent after the connection is authenticated, i.e. after OK was received by the client. This command may only be sent on transports that support Unix file descriptor passing.

      On receiving NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD the server must respond with either AGREE_UNIX_FD or ERROR. It shall respond the former if the transport chosen supports Unix file descriptor passing and the server supports this feature. It shall respond the latter if the transport does not support Unix file descriptor passing, the server does not support this feature, or the server decides not to enable file descriptor passing due to security or other reasons.

      The AGREE_UNIX_FD command is sent by the server to the client.

      The AGREE_UNIX_FD command indicates that the server supports Unix file descriptor passing. This command may only be sent after the connection is authenticated, and the client sent NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD to enable Unix file descriptor passing. This command may only be sent on transports that support Unix file descriptor passing.

      On receiving AGREE_UNIX_FD the client must respond with BEGIN, followed by its stream of messages, or by disconnecting. The server must not accept additional commands using this protocol after the BEGIN command has been received. Further communication will be a stream of D-Bus messages (optionally encrypted, as negotiated) rather than this protocol.

      Future extensions to the authentication and negotiation protocol are possible. For that new commands may be introduced. If a client or server receives an unknown command it shall respond with ERROR and not consider this fatal. New commands may be introduced both before, and after authentication, i.e. both before and after the OK command.

      Figure 1. Example of successful EXTERNAL authentication

      31303030 is ASCII decimal "1000" represented in hex, so the client is authenticating as Unix uid 1000 in this example. C: AUTH EXTERNAL 31303030 S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 2. Example of finding out mechanisms then picking one

      C: AUTH S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 3. Example of client sends unknown command then falls back to regular auth

      532d312d352d3138 is the Windows SID "S-1-5-18" in hex, so the client is authenticating as Windows SID S-1-5-18 in this example. C: FOOBAR S: ERROR C: AUTH EXTERNAL 532d312d352d3138 S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 4. Example of server doesn't support initial auth mechanism

      C: AUTH EXTERNAL S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 5. Example of wrong password or the like followed by successful retry

      C: AUTH EXTERNAL 736d6376 S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f S: REJECTED C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 6. Example of skey cancelled and restarted

      C: AUTH EXTERNAL 32303438 S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: CANCEL S: REJECTED C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 7. Example of successful EXTERNAL authentication with successful negotiation of Unix FD passing

      C: AUTH EXTERNAL 31303030 S: OK 1234deadbeef C: NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD S: AGREE_UNIX_FD C: BEGIN

      Figure 8. Example of successful EXTERNAL authentication with unsuccessful negotiation of Unix FD passing

      C: AUTH EXTERNAL 31303030 S: OK 1234deadbeef C: NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD S: ERROR Not supported on this OS C: BEGIN

      Authentication state diagrams

      This section documents the auth protocol in terms of a state machine for the client and the server. This is probably the most robust way to implement the protocol.

      To more precisely describe the interaction between the protocol state machine and the authentication mechanisms the following notation is used: MECH(CHALL) means that the server challenge CHALL was fed to the mechanism MECH, which returns one of

      • CONTINUE(RESP) means continue the auth conversation and send RESP as the response to the server;

      • OK(RESP) means that after sending RESP to the server the client side of the auth conversation is finished and the server should return "OK";

      • ERROR means that CHALL was invalid and could not be processed.

      Both RESP and CHALL may be empty.

      The Client starts by getting an initial response from the default mechanism and sends AUTH MECH RESP, or AUTH MECH if the mechanism did not provide an initial response. If the mechanism returns CONTINUE, the client starts in state WaitingForData, if the mechanism returns OK the client starts in state WaitingForOK.

      The client should keep track of available mechanisms and which it mechanisms it has already attempted. This list is used to decide which AUTH command to send. When the list is exhausted, the client should give up and close the connection.

      WaitingForData

      • Receive DATA CHALL

        MECH(CHALL) returns CONTINUE(RESP) → send DATA RESP, goto WaitingForData
        MECH(CHALL) returns OK(RESP) → send DATA RESP, goto WaitingForOK
        MECH(CHALL) returns ERROR → send ERROR [msg], goto WaitingForData
      • Receive REJECTED [mechs] → send AUTH [next mech], goto WaitingForData or WaitingForOK

      • Receive ERROR → send CANCEL, goto WaitingForReject

      • Receive OK → authenticated, choose one:

        send NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD, goto WaitingForAgreeUnixFD
        send BEGIN, terminate auth conversation (successfully)
      • Receive anything else → send ERROR, goto WaitingForData

      WaitingForOK

      • Receive OK → authenticated, choose one:

        send NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD, goto WaitingForAgreeUnixFD
        send BEGIN, terminate auth conversation (successfully)
      • Receive REJECTED [mechs] → send AUTH [next mech], goto WaitingForData or WaitingForOK

      • Receive DATA → send CANCEL, goto WaitingForReject

      • Receive ERROR → send CANCEL, goto WaitingForReject

      • Receive anything else → send ERROR, goto WaitingForOK

      WaitingForReject

      • Receive REJECTED [mechs] → send AUTH [next mech], goto WaitingForData or WaitingForOK

      • Receive anything else → terminate auth conversation, disconnect

      WaitingForAgreeUnixFD By the time this state is reached, the client has already been authenticated.

      • Receive AGREE_UNIX_FD → enable Unix fd passing, send BEGIN, terminate auth conversation (successfully)

      • Receive ERROR → disable Unix fd passing, send BEGIN, terminate auth conversation (successfully)

      • Receive anything else → terminate auth conversation, disconnect

      For the server MECH(RESP) means that the client response RESP was fed to the the mechanism MECH, which returns one of

      • CONTINUE(CHALL) means continue the auth conversation and send CHALL as the challenge to the client;

      • OK means that the client has been successfully authenticated;

      • REJECTED means that the client failed to authenticate or there was an error in RESP.

      The server starts out in state WaitingForAuth. If the client is rejected too many times the server must disconnect the client.

      WaitingForAuth

      • Receive AUTH → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive AUTH MECH RESP

        MECH not valid mechanism → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth
        MECH(RESP) returns CONTINUE(CHALL) → send DATA CHALL, goto WaitingForData
        MECH(RESP) returns OK → send OK, goto WaitingForBegin
        MECH(RESP) returns REJECTED → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth
      • Receive BEGIN → terminate auth conversation, disconnect

      • Receive ERROR → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive anything else → send ERROR, goto WaitingForAuth

      WaitingForData

      • Receive DATA RESP

        MECH(RESP) returns CONTINUE(CHALL) → send DATA CHALL, goto WaitingForData
        MECH(RESP) returns OK → send OK, goto WaitingForBegin
        MECH(RESP) returns REJECTED → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth
      • Receive BEGIN → terminate auth conversation, disconnect

      • Receive CANCEL → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive ERROR → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive anything else → send ERROR, goto WaitingForData

      WaitingForBegin

      • Receive BEGIN → terminate auth conversation, client authenticated

      • Receive NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD → send AGREE_UNIX_FD or ERROR, goto WaitingForBegin

      • Receive CANCEL → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive ERROR → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive anything else → send ERROR, goto WaitingForBegin

      Authentication mechanisms

      This section describes some authentication mechanisms that are often supported by practical D-Bus implementations. The D-Bus protocol also allows any other standard SASL mechanism, although implementations of D-Bus often do not.

      The EXTERNAL mechanism is defined in RFC 4422 "Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)", appendix A "The SASL EXTERNAL Mechanism". This is the recommended authentication mechanism on platforms where credentials can be transferred out-of-band, in particular Unix platforms that can perform credentials-passing over the unix: transport.

      On Unix platforms, interoperable clients should prefer to send the ASCII decimal string form of the integer Unix user ID as the authorization identity, for example 1000. When encoded in hex by the authentication protocol, this will typically result in a line like followed by \r\n.

      On Windows platforms, clients that use the EXTERNAL mechanism should use the Windows security identifier in its string form as the authorization identity, for example for a domain or local computer user or for the LOCAL_SYSTEM user. When encoded in hex by the authentication protocol, this will typically result in a line like followed by \r\n.

      DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 is a D-Bus-specific SASL mechanism. Its reference implementation is part of the reference implementation of D-Bus.

      This mechanism is designed to establish that a client has the ability to read a private file owned by the user being authenticated. If the client can prove that it has access to a secret cookie stored in this file, then the client is authenticated. Thus the security of DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 depends on a secure home directory. This is the recommended authentication mechanism for platforms and configurations where EXTERNAL cannot be used.

      Throughout this description, "hex encoding" must output the digits from a to f in lower-case; the digits A to F must not be used in the DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 mechanism.

      Authentication proceeds as follows:

      • The client sends the username it would like to authenticate as, hex-encoded.

      • The server sends the name of its "cookie context" (see below); a space character; the integer ID of the secret cookie the client must demonstrate knowledge of; a space character; then a randomly-generated challenge string, all of this hex-encoded into one, single string.

      • The client locates the cookie and generates its own randomly-generated challenge string. The client then concatenates the server's decoded challenge, a ":" character, its own challenge, another ":" character, and the cookie. It computes the SHA-1 hash of this composite string as a hex digest. It concatenates the client's challenge string, a space character, and the SHA-1 hex digest, hex-encodes the result and sends it back to the server.

      • The server generates the same concatenated string used by the client and computes its SHA-1 hash. It compares the hash with the hash received from the client; if the two hashes match, the client is authenticated.

      Each server has a "cookie context," which is a name that identifies a set of cookies that apply to that server. A sample context might be "org_freedesktop_session_bus". Context names must be valid ASCII, nonzero length, and may not contain the characters slash ("/"), backslash ("\"), space (" "), newline ("\n"), carriage return ("\r"), tab ("\t"), or period ("."). There is a default context, "org_freedesktop_general" that's used by servers that do not specify otherwise.

      Cookies are stored in a user's home directory, in the directory . This directory must not be readable or writable by other users. If it is, clients and servers must ignore it. The directory contains cookie files named after the cookie context.

      A cookie file contains one cookie per line. Each line has three space-separated fields:

      • The cookie ID number, which must be a non-negative integer and may not be used twice in the same file.

      • The cookie's creation time, in UNIX seconds-since-the-epoch format.

      • The cookie itself, a hex-encoded random block of bytes. The cookie may be of any length, though obviously security increases as the length increases.

      Only server processes modify the cookie file. They must do so with this procedure:

      • Create a lockfile name by appending ".lock" to the name of the cookie file. The server should attempt to create this file using . If file creation fails, the lock fails. Servers should retry for a reasonable period of time, then they may choose to delete an existing lock to keep users from having to manually delete a stale lock.

      • Once the lockfile has been created, the server loads the cookie file. It should then delete any cookies that are old (the timeout can be fairly short), or more than a reasonable time in the future (so that cookies never accidentally become permanent, if the clock was set far into the future at some point). If no recent keys remain, the server may generate a new key.

      • The pruned and possibly added-to cookie file must be resaved atomically (using a temporary file which is rename()'d).

      • The lock must be dropped by deleting the lockfile.

      Clients need not lock the file in order to load it, because servers are required to save the file atomically.

      Server addresses consist of a transport name followed by a colon, and then an optional, comma-separated list of keys and values in the form key=value. Each value is escaped.

      For example:

      unix:path=/tmp/dbus-test

      Which is the address to a unix socket with the path /tmp/dbus-test.

      Value escaping is similar to URI escaping but simpler.

      • The set of optionally-escaped bytes is: . To escape, each byte (note, not character) which is not in the set of optionally-escaped bytes must be replaced with an ASCII percent () and the value of the byte in hex. The hex value must always be two digits, even if the first digit is zero. The optionally-escaped bytes may be escaped if desired.

      • To unescape, append each byte in the value; if a byte is an ASCII percent () character then append the following hex value instead. It is an error if a byte does not have two hex digits following. It is an error if a non-optionally-escaped byte is seen unescaped.

      The set of optionally-escaped bytes is intended to preserve address readability and convenience.

      A server may specify a key-value pair with the key and the value a hex-encoded 16-byte sequence. the section called “UUIDs” describes the format of the field. If present, this UUID may be used to distinguish one server address from another. A server should use a different UUID for each address it listens on. For example, if a message bus daemon offers both UNIX domain socket and TCP connections, but treats clients the same regardless of how they connect, those two connections are equivalent post-connection but should have distinct UUIDs to distinguish the kinds of connection.

      The intent of the address UUID feature is to allow a client to avoid opening multiple identical connections to the same server, by allowing the client to check whether an address corresponds to an already-existing connection. Comparing two addresses is insufficient, because addresses can be recycled by distinct servers, and equivalent addresses may look different if simply compared as strings (for example, the host in a TCP address can be given as an IP address or as a hostname).

      Note that the address key is even though the rest of the API and documentation says "UUID," for historical reasons.

      [FIXME clarify if attempting to connect to each is a requirement or just a suggestion] When connecting to a server, multiple server addresses can be separated by a semi-colon. The library will then try to connect to the first address and if that fails, it'll try to connect to the next one specified, and so forth. For example

      unix:path=/tmp/dbus-test;unix:path=/tmp/dbus-test2

      Some addresses are connectable. A connectable address is one containing enough information for a client to connect to it. For instance, is a connectable address. It is not necessarily possible to listen on every connectable address: for instance, it is not possible to listen on a address.

      Some addresses are listenable. A listenable address is one containing enough information for a server to listen on it, producing a connectable address (which may differ from the original address). Many listenable addresses are not connectable: for instance, is listenable, but not connectable (because it does not specify a port number).

      Listening on an address that is not connectable will result in a connectable address that is not the same as the listenable address. For instance, listening on might result in the connectable address , listening on might result in the connectable address , or listening on might result in the connectable address .

      [FIXME we need to specify in detail each transport and its possible arguments] Current transports include: unix domain sockets (including abstract namespace on linux), launchd, systemd, TCP/IP, an executed subprocess and a debug/testing transport using in-process pipes. Future possible transports include one that tunnels over X11 protocol.

      Unix domain sockets can be either paths in the file system or on Linux kernels, they can be abstract which are similar to paths but do not show up in the file system.

      When a socket is opened by the D-Bus library it truncates the path name right before the first trailing Nul byte. This is true for both normal paths and abstract paths. Note that this is a departure from previous versions of D-Bus that would create sockets with a fixed length path name. Names which were shorter than the fixed length would be padded by Nul bytes.

      Unix domain sockets are not available on Windows. On all other platforms, they are the recommended transport for D-Bus, either used alone or in conjunction with systemd or launchd addresses.

      Unix addresses that specify or are both listenable and connectable. Unix addresses that specify or are only listenable: the corresponding connectable address will specify either or . Similarly, Unix addresses that specify are only listenable, and the corresponding connectable address will specify .

      Unix domain socket addresses are identified by the "unix:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      path(path) Path of the unix domain socket.
      dir(path) Directory in which a socket file with a random file name starting with 'dbus-' will be created by the server. This key can only be used in server addresses, not in client addresses; the resulting client address will have the "path" key instead. be set.
      tmpdir(path) The same as "dir", except that on platforms with abstract sockets, the server may attempt to create an abstract socket whose name starts with this directory instead of a path-based socket. This key can only be used in server addresses, not in client addresses; the resulting client address will have the "abstract" or "path" key instead.
      abstract(string) Unique string in the abstract namespace, often syntactically resembling a path but unconnected to the filesystem namespace. This key is only supported on platforms with abstract Unix sockets, of which Linux is the only known example.
      runtimeIf given, This key can only be used in server addresses, not in client addresses. If set, its value must be . This is typically used in an address string like so that there can be a fallback if is not set.

      Exactly one of the keys , , , or must be provided.

      launchd is an open-source server management system that replaces init, inetd and cron on Apple Mac OS X versions 10.4 and above. It provides a common session bus address for each user and deprecates the X11-enabled D-Bus launcher on OSX.

      launchd allocates a socket and provides it with the unix path through the DBUS_LAUNCHD_SESSION_BUS_SOCKET variable in launchd's environment. Every process spawned by launchd (or dbus-daemon, if it was started by launchd) can access it through its environment. Other processes can query for the launchd socket by executing: $ launchctl getenv DBUS_LAUNCHD_SESSION_BUS_SOCKET This is normally done by the D-Bus client library so doesn't have to be done manually.

      launchd is not available on Microsoft Windows.

      launchd addresses are listenable and connectable.

      launchd addresses are identified by the "launchd:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      env(environment variable)path of the unix domain socket for the launchd created dbus-daemon.

      The key is required.

      systemd is an open-source server management system that replaces init and inetd on newer Linux systems. It supports socket activation. The D-Bus systemd transport is used to acquire socket activation file descriptors from systemd and use them as D-Bus transport when the current process is spawned by socket activation from it.

      The systemd transport accepts only one or more Unix domain or TCP streams sockets passed in via socket activation. Using Unix domain sockets is strongly recommended.

      The systemd transport is not available on non-Linux operating systems.

      The systemd transport defines no parameter keys.

      systemd addresses are listenable, but not connectable. The corresponding connectable address is the or address of the socket.

      The tcp transport provides TCP/IP based connections between clients located on the same or different hosts.

      Similar to remote X11, the TCP transport has no integrity or confidentiality protection, so it should normally only be used across the local loopback interface, for example using an address like or . In particular, configuring the well-known system bus or the well-known session bus to listen on a non-loopback TCP address is insecure.

      On Windows and most Unix platforms, the TCP stack is unable to transfer credentials over a TCP connection, so the EXTERNAL authentication mechanism does not normally work for this transport (although the reference implementation of D-Bus is able to identify loopback TCPv4 connections on Windows by their port number, partially enabling the EXTERNAL mechanism). The DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 mechanism is normally used instead.

      Developers are sometimes tempted to use remote TCP as a debugging tool. However, if this functionality is left enabled in finished products, the result will be dangerously insecure. Instead of using remote TCP, developers should relay connections via Secure Shell or a similar protocol.

      Remote TCP connections were historically sometimes used to share a single session bus between login sessions of the same user on different machines within a trusted local area network, in conjunction with unencrypted remote X11, a NFS-shared home directory and NIS (YP) authentication. This is insecure against an attacker on the same LAN and should be considered strongly deprecated; more specifically, it is insecure in the same ways and for the same reasons as unencrypted remote X11 and NFSv2/NFSv3. The D-Bus maintainers recommend using a separate session bus per (user, machine) pair, only accessible from within that machine.

      All addresses are listenable. addresses in which both and are specified, and is non-zero, are also connectable.

      TCP/IP socket addresses are identified by the "tcp:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      host(string)DNS name or IP address
      bind(string)Used in a listenable address to configure the interface on which the server will listen: either the IP address of one of the local machine's interfaces (most commonly ), or a DNS name that resolves to one of those IP addresses, or '*' to listen on all interfaces simultaneously. If not specified, the default is the same value as "host".
      port(number)The tcp port the server will open. A zero value let the server choose a free port provided from the underlaying operating system. libdbus is able to retrieve the real used port from the server.
      family(string)If set, provide the type of socket family either "ipv4" or "ipv6". If unset, the family is unspecified.

      Nonce-authenticated TCP Sockets

      The nonce-tcp transport provides a modified TCP transport using a simple authentication mechanism, to ensure that only clients with read access to a certain location in the filesystem can connect to the server. The server writes a secret, the nonce, to a file and an incoming client connection is only accepted if the client sends the nonce right after the connect. The nonce mechanism requires no setup and is orthogonal to the higher-level authentication mechanisms described in the Authentication section.

      The nonce-tcp transport is conceptually similar to a combination of the DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 authentication mechanism and the tcp transport, and appears to have originally been implemented as a result of a misunderstanding of the SASL authentication mechanisms.

      Like the ordinary tcp transport, the nonce-tcp transport has no integrity or confidentiality protection, so it should normally only be used across the local loopback interface, for example using an address like or . Other uses are insecure. See the section called “TCP Sockets” for more information on situations where these transports have been used, and alternatives to these transports.

      Implementations of D-Bus on Windows operating systems normally use a nonce-tcp transport via the local loopback interface. This is because the unix transport, which would otherwise be recommended, is not available on these operating systems.

      On start, the server generates a random 16 byte nonce and writes it to a file in the user's temporary directory. The nonce file location is published as part of the server's D-Bus address using the "noncefile" key-value pair. After an accept, the server reads 16 bytes from the socket. If the read bytes do not match the nonce stored in the nonce file, the server MUST immediately drop the connection. If the nonce match the received byte sequence, the client is accepted and the transport behaves like an ordinary tcp transport.

      After a successful connect to the server socket, the client MUST read the nonce from the file published by the server via the noncefile= key-value pair and send it over the socket. After that, the transport behaves like an ordinary tcp transport.

      All nonce-tcp addresses are listenable. nonce-tcp addresses in which , and are all specified, and is nonzero, are also connectable.

      Nonce TCP/IP socket addresses uses the "nonce-tcp:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      host(string)DNS name or IP address
      bind(string)The same as for tcp: addresses
      port(number)The tcp port the server will open. A zero value let the server choose a free port provided from the underlaying operating system. libdbus is able to retrieve the real used port from the server.
      family(string)If set, provide the type of socket family either "ipv4" or "ipv6". If unset, the family is unspecified.
      noncefile(path)File location containing the secret. This is only meaningful in connectable addresses: a listening D-Bus server that offers this transport will always create a new nonce file.

      Executed Subprocesses on Unix

      This transport forks off a process and connects its standard input and standard output with an anonymous Unix domain socket. This socket is then used for communication by the transport. This transport may be used to use out-of-process forwarder programs as basis for the D-Bus protocol.

      The forked process will inherit the standard error output and process group from the parent process.

      Executed subprocesses are not available on Windows.

      addresses are connectable, but are not listenable.

      Executed subprocess addresses are identified by the "unixexec:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      path(path)Path of the binary to execute, either an absolute path or a binary name that is searched for in the default search path of the OS. This corresponds to the first argument of execlp(). This key is mandatory.
      argv0(string)The program name to use when executing the binary. If omitted the same value as specified for path= will be used. This corresponds to the second argument of execlp().
      argv1, argv2, ...(string)Arguments to pass to the binary. This corresponds to the third and later arguments of execlp(). If a specific argvX is not specified no further argvY for Y > X are taken into account.

      Meta transports are a kind of transport with special enhancements or behavior. Currently available meta transports include: autolaunch

      The autolaunch transport provides a way for dbus clients to autodetect a running dbus session bus and to autolaunch a session bus if not present.

      On Unix, addresses are connectable, but not listenable.

      On Windows, addresses are both connectable and listenable.

      Autolaunch addresses uses the "autolaunch:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      scope(string)scope of autolaunch (Windows only)
      • "*install-path" - limit session bus to dbus installation path. The dbus installation path is determined from the location of the shared dbus library. If the library is located in a 'bin' subdirectory the installation root is the directory above, otherwise the directory where the library lives is taken as installation root.

        <install-root>/bin/[lib]dbus-1.dll <install-root>/[lib]dbus-1.dll
      • "*user" - limit session bus to the recent user.

      • other values - specify dedicated session bus like "release", "debug" or other

      On start, the server opens a platform specific transport, creates a mutex and a shared memory section containing the related session bus address. This mutex will be inspected by the dbus client library to detect a running dbus session bus. The access to the mutex and the shared memory section are protected by global locks.

      In the recent implementation the autolaunch transport uses a tcp transport on localhost with a port choosen from the operating system. This detail may change in the future.

      Disclaimer: The recent implementation is in an early state and may not work in all cirumstances and/or may have security issues. Because of this the implementation is not documentated yet.

      A working D-Bus implementation uses universally-unique IDs in two places. First, each server address has a UUID identifying the address, as described in the section called “Server Addresses”. Second, each operating system kernel instance running a D-Bus client or server has a UUID identifying that kernel, retrieved by invoking the method org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.GetMachineId() (see the section called “”).

      The term "UUID" in this document is intended literally, i.e. an identifier that is universally unique. It is not intended to refer to RFC4122, and in fact the D-Bus UUID is not compatible with that RFC.

      The UUID must contain 128 bits of data and be hex-encoded. The hex-encoded string may not contain hyphens or other non-hex-digit characters, and it must be exactly 32 characters long. To generate a UUID, the current reference implementation concatenates 96 bits of random data followed by the 32-bit time in seconds since the UNIX epoch (in big endian byte order).

      It would also be acceptable and probably better to simply generate 128 bits of random data, as long as the random number generator is of high quality. The timestamp could conceivably help if the random bits are not very random. With a quality random number generator, collisions are extremely unlikely even with only 96 bits, so it's somewhat academic.

      Implementations should, however, stick to random data for the first 96 bits of the UUID.

      See the section called “Notation in this document” for details on the notation used in this section. There are some standard interfaces that may be useful across various D-Bus applications.

      The interface has two methods:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.Ping () org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.GetMachineId (out STRING machine_uuid)

      On receipt of the message , an application should do nothing other than reply with a as usual. It does not matter which object path a ping is sent to. The reference implementation handles this method automatically.

      On receipt of the message , an application should reply with a containing a hex-encoded UUID representing the identity of the machine the process is running on. This UUID must be the same for all processes on a single system at least until that system next reboots. It should be the same across reboots if possible, but this is not always possible to implement and is not guaranteed. It does not matter which object path a GetMachineId is sent to. The reference implementation handles this method automatically.

      The UUID is intended to be per-instance-of-the-operating-system, so may represent a virtual machine running on a hypervisor, rather than a physical machine. Basically if two processes see the same UUID, they should also see the same shared memory, UNIX domain sockets, process IDs, and other features that require a running OS kernel in common between the processes.

      The UUID is often used where other programs might use a hostname. Hostnames can change without rebooting, however, or just be "localhost" - so the UUID is more robust.

      the section called “UUIDs” explains the format of the UUID.

      This interface has one method:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable.Introspect (out STRING xml_data)

      Objects instances may implement which returns an XML description of the object, including its interfaces (with signals and methods), objects below it in the object path tree, and its properties.

      the section called “Introspection Data Format” describes the format of this XML string.

      Many native APIs will have a concept of object properties or attributes. These can be exposed via the interface.

      org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.Get (in STRING interface_name, in STRING property_name, out VARIANT value); org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.Set (in STRING interface_name, in STRING property_name, in VARIANT value); org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.GetAll (in STRING interface_name, out DICT<STRING,VARIANT> props);

      It is conventional to give D-Bus properties names consisting of capitalized words without punctuation ("CamelCase"), like member names. For instance, the GObject property or the Qt property could be represented on D-Bus as .

      Strictly speaking, D-Bus property names are not required to follow the same naming restrictions as member names, but D-Bus property names that would not be valid member names (in particular, GObject-style dash-separated property names) can cause interoperability problems and should be avoided.

      The available properties and whether they are writable can be determined by calling , see the section called “”.

      An empty string may be provided for the interface name; in this case, if there are multiple properties on an object with the same name, the results are undefined (picking one by according to an arbitrary deterministic rule, or returning an error, are the reasonable possibilities).

      If is called with a valid interface name which contains no properties, an empty array should be returned. If it is called with a valid interface name for which some properties are not accessible to the caller (for example, due to per-property access control implemented in the service), those properties should be silently omitted from the result array. If is called for any such properties, an appropriate access control error should be returned.

      If one or more properties change on an object, the signal may be emitted (this signal was added in 0.14):

      org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.PropertiesChanged (STRING interface_name, DICT<STRING,VARIANT> changed_properties, ARRAY<STRING> invalidated_properties);

      where is a dictionary containing the changed properties with the new values and is an array of properties that changed but the value is not conveyed.

      Whether the signal is supported can be determined by calling . Note that the signal may be supported for an object but it may differ how whether and how it is used on a per-property basis (for e.g. performance or security reasons). Each property (or the parent interface) must be annotated with the annotation to convey this (usually the default value is sufficient meaning that the annotation does not need to be used). See the section called “Introspection Data Format” for details on this annotation.

      An API can optionally make use of this interface for one or more sub-trees of objects. The root of each sub-tree implements this interface so other applications can get all objects, interfaces and properties in a single method call. It is appropriate to use this interface if users of the tree of objects are expected to be interested in all interfaces of all objects in the tree; a more granular API should be used if users of the objects are expected to be interested in a small subset of the objects, a small subset of their interfaces, or both.

      The method that applications can use to get all objects and properties is :

      org.freedesktop.DBus.ObjectManager.GetManagedObjects (out DICT<OBJPATH,DICT<STRING,DICT<STRING,VARIANT>>> objpath_interfaces_and_properties);

      The return value of this method is a dict whose keys are object paths. All returned object paths are children of the object path implementing this interface, i.e. their object paths start with the ObjectManager's object path plus '/'.

      Each value is a dict whose keys are interfaces names. Each value in this inner dict is the same dict that would be returned by the org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.GetAll() method for that combination of object path and interface. If an interface has no properties, the empty dict is returned.

      Changes are emitted using the following two signals:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.ObjectManager.InterfacesAdded (OBJPATH object_path, DICT<STRING,DICT<STRING,VARIANT>> interfaces_and_properties); org.freedesktop.DBus.ObjectManager.InterfacesRemoved (OBJPATH object_path, ARRAY<STRING> interfaces);

      The signal is emitted when either a new object is added or when an existing object gains one or more interfaces. The signal is emitted whenever an object is removed or it loses one or more interfaces. The second parameter of the signal contains a dict with the interfaces and properties (if any) that have been added to the given object path. Similarly, the second parameter of the signal contains an array of the interfaces that were removed. Note that changes on properties on existing interfaces are not reported using this interface - an application should also monitor the existing PropertiesChanged signal on each object.

      Applications SHOULD NOT export objects that are children of an object (directly or otherwise) implementing this interface but which are not returned in the reply from the method of this interface on the given object.

      The intent of the interface is to make it easy to write a robust client implementation. The trivial client implementation only needs to make two method calls:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.AddMatch (bus_proxy, "type='signal',sender='org.example.App2',path_namespace='/org/example/App2'"); objects = org.freedesktop.DBus.ObjectManager.GetManagedObjects (app_proxy);

      on the message bus and the remote application's , respectively. Whenever a new remote object is created (or an existing object gains a new interface), the signal is emitted, and since this signal contains all properties for the interfaces, no calls to the interface on the remote object are needed. Additionally, since the initial rule already includes signal messages from the newly created child object, no new call is needed.

      The interface was added in version 0.17 of the D-Bus specification.

      Introspection Data Format

      As described in the section called “”, objects may be introspected at runtime, returning an XML string that describes the object. The same XML format may be used in other contexts as well, for example as an "IDL" for generating static language bindings.

      Here is an example of introspection data:

      <!DOCTYPE node PUBLIC "-//freedesktop//DTD D-BUS Object Introspection 1.0//EN" "http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/dbus/1.0/introspect.dtd"> <node name="/com/example/sample_object0"> <interface name="com.example.SampleInterface0"> <method name="Frobate"> <arg name="foo" type="i" direction="in"/> <arg name="bar" type="s" direction="out"/> <arg name="baz" type="a{us}" direction="out"/> <annotation name="org.freedesktop.DBus.Deprecated" value="true"/> </method> <method name="Bazify"> <arg name="bar" type="(iiu)" direction="in"/> <arg name="bar" type="v" direction="out"/> </method> <method name="Mogrify"> <arg name="bar" type="(iiav)" direction="in"/> </method> <signal name="Changed"> <arg name="new_value" type="b"/> </signal> <property name="Bar" type="y" access="readwrite"/> </interface> <node name="child_of_sample_object"/> <node name="another_child_of_sample_object"/> </node>

      A more formal DTD and spec needs writing, but here are some quick notes.

      • Only the root <node> element can omit the node name, as it's known to be the object that was introspected. If the root <node> does have a name attribute, it must be an absolute object path. If child <node> have object paths, they must be relative.

      • If a child <node> has any sub-elements, then they must represent a complete introspection of the child. If a child <node> is empty, then it may or may not have sub-elements; the child must be introspected in order to find out. The intent is that if an object knows that its children are "fast" to introspect it can go ahead and return their information, but otherwise it can omit it.

      • The direction element on <arg> may be omitted, in which case it defaults to "in" for method calls and "out" for signals. Signals only allow "out" so while direction may be specified, it's pointless.

      • The possible directions are "in" and "out", unlike CORBA there is no "inout"

      • The possible property access flags are "readwrite", "read", and "write"

      • Multiple interfaces can of course be listed for one <node>.

      • The "name" attribute on arguments is optional.

      Method, interface, property, signal, and argument elements may have "annotations", which are generic key/value pairs of metadata. They are similar conceptually to Java's annotations and C# attributes. Well-known annotations:

      NameValues (separated by ,)Description
      org.freedesktop.DBus.Deprecatedtrue,falseWhether or not the entity is deprecated; defaults to false
      org.freedesktop.DBus.GLib.CSymbol(string)The C symbol; may be used for methods and interfaces
      org.freedesktop.DBus.Method.NoReplytrue,falseIf set, don't expect a reply to the method call; defaults to false.
      org.freedesktop.DBus.Property.EmitsChangedSignaltrue,invalidates,const,false

      If set to , the signal, see the section called “” is not guaranteed to be emitted if the property changes.

      If set to the property never changes value during the lifetime of the object it belongs to, and hence the signal is never emitted for it.

      If set to the signal is emitted but the value is not included in the signal.

      If set to the signal is emitted with the value included.

      The value for the annotation defaults to if the enclosing interface element does not specify the annotation. Otherwise it defaults to the value specified in the enclosing interface element.

      This annotation is intended to be used by code generators to implement client-side caching of property values. For all properties for which the annotation is set to , or the client may unconditionally cache the values as the properties don't change or notifications are generated for them if they do.

      Message Bus Specification

      The message bus accepts connections from one or more applications. Once connected, applications can exchange messages with other applications that are also connected to the bus.

      In order to route messages among connections, the message bus keeps a mapping from names to connections. Each connection has one unique-for-the-lifetime-of-the-bus name automatically assigned. Applications may request additional names for a connection. Additional names are usually "well-known names" such as "com.example.TextEditor1". When a name is bound to a connection, that connection is said to own the name.

      The bus itself owns a special name, , with an object located at that implements the interface. This service allows applications to make administrative requests of the bus itself. For example, applications can ask the bus to assign a name to a connection.

      Each name may have queued owners. When an application requests a name for a connection and the name is already in use, the bus will optionally add the connection to a queue waiting for the name. If the current owner of the name disconnects or releases the name, the next connection in the queue will become the new owner.

      This feature causes the right thing to happen if you start two text editors for example; the first one may request "com.example.TextEditor1", and the second will be queued as a possible owner of that name. When the first exits, the second will take over.

      Applications may send unicast messages to a specific recipient or to the message bus itself, or broadcast messages to all interested recipients. See the section called “Message Bus Message Routing” for details.

      Each connection has at least one name, assigned at connection time and returned in response to the method call. This automatically-assigned name is called the connection's unique name. Unique names are never reused for two different connections to the same bus.

      Ownership of a unique name is a prerequisite for interaction with the message bus. It logically follows that the unique name is always the first name that an application comes to own, and the last one that it loses ownership of.

      Unique connection names must begin with the character ':' (ASCII colon character); bus names that are not unique names must not begin with this character. (The bus must reject any attempt by an application to manually request a name beginning with ':'.) This restriction categorically prevents "spoofing"; messages sent to a unique name will always go to the expected connection.

      When a connection is closed, all the names that it owns are deleted (or transferred to the next connection in the queue if any).

      A connection can request additional names to be associated with it using the message. the section called “Bus names” describes the format of a valid name. These names can be released again using the message.

      Message Bus Message Routing

      Messages may have a field (see the section called “Header Fields”), resulting in a unicast message. If the field is present, it specifies a message recipient by name. Method calls and replies normally specify this field. The message bus must send messages (of any type) with the field set to the specified recipient, regardless of whether the recipient has set up a match rule matching the message.

      When the message bus receives a signal, if the field is absent, it is considered to be a broadcast signal, and is sent to all applications with message matching rules that match the message. Most signal messages are broadcasts, and no other message types currently defined in this specification may be broadcast.

      Unicast signal messages (those with a field) are not commonly used, but they are treated like any unicast message: they are delivered to the specified receipient, regardless of its match rules. One use for unicast signals is to avoid a race condition in which a signal is emitted before the intended recipient can call the section called “”

      Источник: https://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/dbus-specification.html

      Signal Desktop 5.23.1 Crack with Serial Key Free Download Latest Version

      Signal Desktop 5.23.1 Crack for PC is fast, simple, secure messaging for the Windows desktop. It now runs independently of your browser, so, if you’re a Firefox or Safari user, you don’t need to install Chrome to send and receive Signal messages on your computer anymore; if you’re a Chrome user, having your browser open will no longer be synonymous with having Signal Desktop open.

      Signal Desktop for PC brings the trusted private messaging experience of Signal to the Windows desktop, with a simplicity that allows you to seamlessly continue conversations back and forth between your mobile device and your Windows PC. As always, everything is end-to-end encrypted and painstakingly engineered to keep your communication safe – allowing you to send high-quality private group, text, picture, and video messages for free signal Desktop for PC are fast, simple, secure messaging for the Windows desktop.

      It now runs independently of your browser, so, if you’re a Firefox or Safari user, you don’t need to install Chrome to send and receive Signal messages on your computer anymore; if you’re a Chrome user, having your browser open will no longer be synonymous with havingSignal Desktopopen.

      Signal Desktop Crack with License Key

      Signal Desktop for PC brings the trusted private messaging experience of Signal to the Windows desktop, with a simplicity that allows you to seamlessly continue conversations back and forth between your mobile device and your Windows PC. As always, everything is end-to-end encrypted and painstakingly engineered to keep your communication safe allowing you to send high-quality private group, text, picture, and video messages for free. If you ever did some research on a valid replacement for the almost ubiquitous modern chat solution that is WhatsApp, then there’s a good chance you might have stumbled upon Signal.

      In short, Signal is a very interesting, modern, and open-source platform for messaging and audio/video calling with a strong inclination towards security enforced by end-to-end encryption. In terms of platform support, it’s worth pointing out that it’s available in the form of bespoke iOS and Android apps for your mobile devices. And, up until recently, if you ever wanted a more convenient way of using this service, you only had the chance of using the official Signal Chrome extension. Signal Desktop Features:

      Say anything
      Send high-quality group, text, voice, video, document, and picture messages anywhere in the world without SMS or MMS fees. Signal Desktop can message anyone on Signal.

      Speak freely
      Make crystal-clear voice and video calls to people who live across town, or the ocean, with no long-distance charges.

      Be Yourself
      Signal uses your existing phone number and address book. There are no separate logins, usernames, or PINs to manage or lose.

      Pay Nothing
      Signal for PC is supported by a team of dedicated developers, community donations, and grants. There are no advertisements, and it doesn’t cost anything to use.

      Stay private
      Signal messages and calls are always end-to-end encrypted and painstakingly engineered to keep your communication safe. We can’t read your messages or see your calls, and no one else can either.

      • We can’t read your messages or see your calls, and no one else can either.
      • View Source
      • All of our code is free, open, and available on GitHub
      • Control time
      • Keep your chat history tidy with messages that you can set to disappear.
      • Choose different disappearing message intervals for each conversation.
      • Everyone in the thread shares the same setting.
      • Good memories will last even if the words vanish.
      • Free for everyone
      • Signal for Windows is made for you.
      • As an Open Source project supported by grants and donations, Signal can put users first.
      • There are no ads, no affiliate marketers, no creepy tracking.
      • Just open technology for a fast, simple, and secure messaging experience

      View Source
      All of our code is free, open, and available on GitHub

      Control time
      Keep your chat history tidy with messages that you can set to disappear. Choose different disappearing message intervals for each conversation. Everyone in the thread shares the same setting. Good memories will last even if the words vanish.

      Free for everyone
      Signal for Windows is made for you. As an Open Source project supported by grants and donations, Signal can put users first. There are no ads, no affiliate marketers, no creepy tracking. Just open technology for a fast, simple, and secure messaging experience. The way it should be.

      Note: Requires Installed iOS or Android app.

      Signal Desktop 1.1

      Key Features:

      • Say anything
      • Send high-quality group, text, voice, video, document, and picture messages anywhere in the world without SMS or MMS fees.
      • Signal Desktop can message anyone on Signal.
      • Speak freely
      • Make crystal-clear voice and video calls to people who live across town, or across the ocean, with no long-distance charges.
      • Be Yourself
      • Signal uses your existing phone number and address book.
      • There are no separate logins, usernames, or PINs to manage or lose.
      • Pay Nothing
      • Signal for PC is supported by a team of dedicated developers, community donations, and grants.
      • There are no advertisements, and it doesn’t cost anything to use.
      • Stay private
      • Signal messages and calls are always end-to-end encrypted and painstakingly engineered to keep your communication safe.
      • We can’t read your messages or see your calls, and no one else can either.
      • View Source
      • All of our code is free, open, and available on GitHub

      What’s New?

      • therefore, All messaging on Signal Desktop is private.
      • Signal messages are synchronized with Signal on your mobile phone.

      Serial Key

      • HUV63-XFY85-H63N4-AVS5X-2022H
      • FYX3U-KTCJF-LYCRB-XRVF3-PSZE3J
      • KUGTD-XDTHM-RCVHI-ZDVHK-I7NV
      • AVY5J-MYC6C-XR8MI-SE4FT-VR3GT
      • NHGS3-BXT9J-NAKI0-LBXUI-AREB7

      How To Install?

      1: Click on DownloadButton.
      2: Softwares Auto Download.
      3: Open Download File.
      4: Click on Install.
      5: Follow The Instructions.
      6: Thanks For Downloading.

      Categories Security BlogTags signal desktop, Signal Desktop 1.1Activation Key, Signal Desktop 1.1Crack, Signal Desktop 1.1Crack Download, Signal Desktop 1.1Download, Signal Desktop 1.1Full Free, Signal Desktop 1.1Full Version, Signal Desktop 1.1Key Genrator, Signal Desktop 1.1Keygen, Signal Desktop 1.1Latest Version, Signal Desktop 1.1License Key, Signal Desktop 1.1Product Key, Signal Desktop 1.1Serial Key, signal desktop app, signal desktop app chrome, signal desktop app github, signal desktop app not syncing, signal desktop app slow, signal desktop app sms, signal desktop app vulnerability, signal desktop apple, signal desktop arch, signal desktop beta, signal desktop bionic, signal desktop call, signal desktop chrome, signal desktop export messages, signal desktop fedora, signal desktop github, signal desktop smsИсточник: https://crackkey4u.com/signal-desktop/

      Signal desktop export messages - Crack Key For U -

      Signal Desktop 5.23.1 Crack with Serial Key Free Download Latest Version

      Signal Desktop 5.23.1 Crack for PC is fast, simple, secure messaging for the Windows desktop. It now runs independently of your browser, so, if you’re a Firefox or Safari user, you don’t need to install Chrome to send and receive Signal messages on your computer anymore; if you’re a Chrome user, having your browser open will no longer be synonymous with having Signal Desktop open.

      Signal Desktop for PC brings the trusted private messaging experience of Signal to the Windows desktop, with a simplicity that allows you to seamlessly continue conversations back and forth between your mobile device and your Windows PC. As always, everything is end-to-end encrypted and painstakingly engineered to keep your communication safe – allowing you to send high-quality private group, text, picture, and video messages for free signal Desktop for PC are fast, simple, secure messaging for the Windows desktop.

      It now runs independently of your browser, so, if you’re a Firefox or Safari user, you don’t need to install Chrome to send and receive Signal messages on your computer anymore; if you’re a Chrome user, having your browser open will no longer be synonymous with havingSignal Desktopopen.

      Signal Desktop Crack with License Key

      Signal Desktop for PC brings the trusted private messaging experience of Signal to the Windows desktop, with a simplicity that allows you to seamlessly continue conversations back and forth between your mobile device and your Windows PC. As always, everything is end-to-end encrypted and painstakingly engineered to keep your communication safe allowing you to send high-quality private group, text, picture, and video messages for free. If you ever did some research on a valid replacement for the almost ubiquitous modern chat solution that is WhatsApp, then there’s a good chance you might have stumbled upon Signal.

      In short, Signal is a very interesting, modern, and open-source platform for messaging and audio/video calling with a strong inclination towards security enforced by end-to-end encryption. In terms of platform support, it’s worth pointing out that it’s available in the form of bespoke iOS and Android apps for your mobile devices. And, up until recently, if you ever wanted a more convenient way of using this service, you only had the chance of using the official Signal Chrome extension. Signal Desktop Features:

      Say anything
      Send high-quality group, text, voice, video, document, and picture messages anywhere in the world without SMS or MMS fees. Signal Desktop can message anyone on Signal.

      Speak freely
      Make crystal-clear voice and video calls to people who live across town, or the ocean, with no long-distance charges.

      Be Yourself
      Signal uses your existing phone number and address book. There are no separate logins, usernames, or PINs to manage or lose.

      Pay Nothing
      Signal for PC is supported by a team of dedicated developers, community donations, and grants. There are no advertisements, and it doesn’t cost anything to use.

      Stay private
      Signal messages and calls are always end-to-end encrypted and painstakingly engineered to keep your communication safe. We can’t read your messages or see your calls, and no one else can either.

      • We can’t read your messages or see your calls, and no one else can either.
      • View Source
      • All of our code is free, open, and available on GitHub
      • Control time
      • Keep your chat history tidy with messages that you can set to disappear.
      • Choose different disappearing message intervals for each conversation.
      • Everyone in the thread shares the same setting.
      • Good memories will last even if the words vanish.
      • Free for everyone
      • Signal for Windows is made for you.
      • As an Open Source project supported by grants and donations, Signal can put users first.
      • There are no ads, no affiliate marketers, no creepy tracking.
      • Just open technology for a fast, simple, and secure messaging experience

      View Source
      All of our code is free, open, and available on GitHub

      Control time
      Keep your chat history tidy with messages that you can set to disappear. Choose different disappearing message intervals for each conversation. Everyone in the thread shares the same setting. Good memories will last even if the words vanish.

      Free for everyone
      Signal for Windows is made for you. As an Open Source project supported by grants and donations, Signal can put users first. There are no ads, no affiliate marketers, no creepy tracking. Just open technology for a fast, simple, and secure messaging experience. The way it should be.

      Note: Requires Installed iOS or Android app.

      Signal Desktop 1.1

      Key Features:

      • Say anything
      • Send high-quality group, text, voice, video, document, and picture messages anywhere in the world without SMS or MMS fees.
      • Signal Desktop can message anyone on Signal.
      • Speak freely
      • Make crystal-clear voice and video calls to people who live across town, or across the ocean, with no long-distance charges.
      • Be Yourself
      • Signal uses your existing phone number and address book.
      • There are no separate logins, usernames, or PINs to manage or lose.
      • Pay Nothing
      • Signal for PC is supported by a team of dedicated developers, community donations, and grants.
      • There are no advertisements, and it doesn’t cost anything to use.
      • Stay private
      • Signal messages and calls are always end-to-end encrypted and painstakingly engineered to keep your communication safe.
      • We can’t read your messages or see your calls, and no one else can either.
      • View Source
      • All of our code is free, open, and available on GitHub

      What’s New?

      • therefore, All messaging on Signal Desktop is private.
      • Signal messages are synchronized with Signal on your mobile phone.

      Serial Key

      • HUV63-XFY85-H63N4-AVS5X-2022H
      • FYX3U-KTCJF-LYCRB-XRVF3-PSZE3J
      • KUGTD-XDTHM-RCVHI-ZDVHK-I7NV
      • AVY5J-MYC6C-XR8MI-SE4FT-VR3GT
      • NHGS3-BXT9J-NAKI0-LBXUI-AREB7

      How To Install?

      1: Click on DownloadButton.
      2: Softwares Auto Download.
      3: Open Download File.
      4: Click on Install.
      5: Follow The Instructions.
      6: Thanks For Downloading.

      Categories Security BlogTags signal desktop, Signal Desktop 1.1Activation Key, Signal Desktop 1.1Crack, Signal Desktop 1.1Crack Download, Signal Desktop 1.1Download, Signal Desktop 1.1Full Free, Signal Desktop 1.1Full Version, Signal Desktop 1.1Key Genrator, Signal Desktop 1.1Keygen, Signal Desktop 1.1Latest Version, Signal Desktop 1.1License Key, Signal Desktop 1.1Product Key, Signal Desktop 1.1Serial Key, signal desktop app, signal desktop app chrome, signal desktop app github, signal desktop app not syncing, signal desktop app slow, signal desktop app sms, signal desktop app vulnerability, signal desktop apple, signal desktop arch, signal desktop beta, signal desktop bionic, signal desktop call, signal desktop chrome, signal desktop export messages, signal desktop fedora, signal desktop github, signal desktop smsИсточник: https://crackkey4u.com/signal-desktop/

      Fujifilm's New Hybrid Instant Camera Pairs Retro Style With Modern Amenities

      As much as our brains have grown to depend on the steady stream of likes from sharing photos on social media, there’s still something to be said for the immediate gratification of an instant camera spitting out a fridge-worthy snapshot. With Fujifilm’s new retro-themed Instax Mini Evo, you get the best of both worlds.

      The camera’s silver body features thickly-textured faux leather accents that at first glance make the Instax Mini Evo look like a vintage Fujifilm snapper you’d find behind glass at a pawn shop. But Fujifilm claims it’s actually one of the most advanced Instax cameras it’s ever released and that its “Resolution of exposure has been doubled compared to the previous models to achieve greater print quality.” Fujifilm doesn’t detail exactly how many megapixels the new Instax Mini Evo captures, but models from a few years ago were hitting the 5 MP mark so if the new model is pushing 10 MP, that’s close enough to what most smartphones snap these days.

      Instead of adjusting focus or zoom, turning the Instax Mini Evo’s lens dial cycles through 1o different lens effects like “Soft Focus” and “Light Leak” which can be combined with 10 different film effects accessed through a film dial on top. It gives shooters 100 unique effects to experiment with, and when satisfied with the results, flicking a film advance lever makes the camera spit out a credit card-sized shot.

      The Instax Mini Evo also pairs with a smartphone, so in addition to hard copies, users can transfer their photos, complete with filters and even the unique frames available with the Instax Mini film stock, to their mobile devices for sharing on social media.

      The new Fujifilm Instax Mini Evo will debut first in Japan in early December, but the company plans to bring it to the US market in February of next year for $200. Of course, that’s in addition to the cost of the instant film which does add up quickly.

      TechGadgets

      Источник: https://gizmodo.com/fujifilms-new-hybrid-instant-camera-pairs-retro-style-w-1848073733

      Signal (software)

      Privacy-focused encrypted messaging app

      "Signal Messenger" redirects here. For the company, see Signal Messenger LLC. For its parent organization, see Signal Technology Foundation. For protocol, see Signal Protocol.

      Signal is a cross-platformcentralizedencryptedinstant messaging service developed by the non-profit Signal Technology Foundation and Signal Messenger LLC. Users can send one-to-one and group messages, which can include files, voice notes, images and videos.[15] It can also be used to make one-to-one and group voice and video calls,[16][17] and the Android version can optionally function as an SMS app.[18]

      Signal uses standard cellular telephone numbers as identifiers and secures all communications to other Signal users with end-to-end encryption. The apps include mechanisms by which users can independently verify the identity of their contacts and the integrity of the data channel.[18][19]

      Signal's software is free and open-source. Its mobileclients are published under the GPL-3.0-onlylicense,[12][11] while the desktop client and server are published under the AGPL-3.0-only license.[13][14][a] The official Android app generally uses the proprietary Google Play Services (installed on most Android devices), though it is designed to still work without them installed. Signal also has an official client app for iOS and desktop apps for Windows, macOS and Linux (although registration requires an iOS or Android device).[21][22]

      The non-profit Signal Foundation was launched in February 2018 with initial funding of $50 million from Brian Acton.[23] As of January 2021[update], Signal had more than 105 million total downloads, and the app had approximately 40 million monthly active users.[24] Signal has been installed on more than 50 million Android devices.[25]

      History[edit]

      Signal timeline
      May 2010Moxie Marlinspike and Stuart Anderson (Whisper Systems) launch TextSecure and RedPhone on Android.[26]
      Nov 2011Whisper Systems is acquired by Twitter,[27] "primarily so that Mr. Marlinspike could help the then-startup improve its security."[28]
      Dec 2011 – Jul 2012TextSecure and RedPhone are released as free and open-source software under the GPLv3 license.[29]
      Jan 2013Moxie Marlinspike leaves Twitter and founds Open Whisper Systems (OWS) as a collaborative open source project for the continued development of TextSecure and RedPhone.[30][31]
      Feb 2014OWS adds end-to-end encrypted group chat and instant messaging capabilities to TextSecure.[32]
      Jul 2014OWS releases Signal as a RedPhone counterpart for iOS.[1]
      Mar 2015OWS discontinues support for encrypted SMS/MMS messaging in TextSecure, while retaining its encrypted IM capabilities.[33] At the same time, OWS adds encrypted IM to Signal on iOS.[34]
      Nov 2015RedPhone is merged into TextSecure on Android and the app is renamed as Signal.[35]
      Dec 2015Signal Desktop is launched as a Chrome App.[36]
      Oct 2017OWS announces the deprecation of their Chrome App and the release of a new Electron-based Signal Desktop.[37]
      Mar 2017OWS transitions Signal's calling system from RedPhone to WebRTC and adds the ability to make video calls with the mobile apps.[38][16]
      Feb 2018Moxie Marlinspike and Brian Acton launch the Signal Foundation with an initial $50 million in funding from Acton, who had left WhatsApp's parent company Facebook in September 2017.[39][40]
      Nov 2019 – Feb 2020Signal adds support for iPads,[41] view-once images and videos, stickers, and reactions.[42]
      Aug 2020 – Sep 2020Signal adds message requests[43] and one-to-one voice and video calling to Signal Desktop.[44][17]
      Oct 2020 – Dec 2020Signal starts transitioning to a new encrypted group chat system with support for @mentions, group admins, and more granular permissions.[45] It also adds support for encrypted group calling.[45]

      2010–2013: Origins[edit]

      Signal is the successor of the RedPhone encrypted voice calling app and the TextSecure encrypted texting program. The beta versions of RedPhone and TextSecure were first launched in May 2010 by Whisper Systems,[26] a startup company co-founded by security researcher Moxie Marlinspike and roboticist Stuart Anderson.[46][47] Whisper Systems also produced a firewall and tools for encrypting other forms of data.[46][48] All of these were proprietary enterprise mobile security software and were only available for Android.

      In November 2011, Whisper Systems announced that it had been acquired by Twitter. Neither company disclosed the financial terms of the deal.[27] The acquisition was done "primarily so that Mr. Marlinspike could help the then-startup improve its security".[49] Shortly after the acquisition, Whisper Systems' RedPhone service was made unavailable.[50] Some criticized the removal, arguing that the software was "specifically targeted [to help] people under repressive regimes" and that it left people like the Egyptians in "a dangerous position" during the events of the Egyptian revolution of 2011.[51]

      Twitter released TextSecure as free and open-source software under the GPLv3 license in December 2011.[46][52][29][53] RedPhone was also released under the same license in July 2012.[54] Marlinspike later left Twitter and founded Open Whisper Systems as a collaborative Open Source project for the continued development of TextSecure and RedPhone.[1][31]

      2013–2018: Open Whisper Systems[edit]

      See also: Open Whisper Systems

      Open Whisper Systems' website was launched in January 2013.[31]

      In February 2014, Open Whisper Systems introduced the second version of their TextSecure Protocol (now Signal Protocol), which added end-to-end encrypted group chat and instant messaging capabilities to TextSecure.[32] Toward the end of July 2014, they announced plans to merge the RedPhone and TextSecure applications as Signal.[55] This announcement coincided with the initial release of Signal as a RedPhone counterpart for iOS. The developers said that their next steps would be to provide TextSecure instant messaging capabilities for iOS, unify the RedPhone and TextSecure applications on Android, and launch a web client.[55] Signal was the first iOS app to enable end-to-end encrypted voice calls for free.[1][56] TextSecure compatibility was added to the iOS application in March 2015.[57][34]

      Signal Android icon, 2015–2017

      Signal icon, 2015–2020

      From its launch in May 2010[26] until March 2015, the Android version of Signal (then called TextSecure) included support for encrypted SMS/MMS messaging.[58] From version 2.7.0 onward, the Android application only supported sending and receiving encrypted messages via the data channel.[59] Reasons for this included security flaws of SMS/MMS and problems with the key exchange.[59] Open Whisper Systems' abandonment of SMS/MMS encryption prompted some users to create a fork named Silence (initially called SMSSecure[60]) that is meant solely for the exchange of encrypted SMS and MMS messages.[61][62]

      In November 2015, the TextSecure and RedPhone applications on Android were merged to become Signal for Android.[35] A month later, Open Whisper Systems announced Signal Desktop, a Chrome app that could link with a Signal mobile client.[36] At launch, the app could only be linked with the Android version of Signal.[63] On September 26, 2016, Open Whisper Systems announced that Signal Desktop could now be linked with the iOS version of Signal as well.[64] On October 31, 2017, Open Whisper Systems announced that the Chrome app was deprecated.[9] At the same time, they announced the release of a standalone desktop client (based on the Electronframework[13]) for Windows, macOS and certain Linux distributions.[9][65]

      On October 4, 2016, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and Open Whisper Systems published a series of documents revealing that OWS had received a subpoena requiring them to provide information associated with two phone numbers for a federal grand jury investigation in the first half of 2016.[66][67][68] Only one of the two phone numbers was registered on Signal, and because of how the service is designed, OWS was only able to provide "the time the user's account had been created and the last time it had connected to the service".[67][66] Along with the subpoena, OWS received a gag order requiring OWS not to tell anyone about the subpoena for one year.[66] OWS approached the ACLU, and they were able to lift part of the gag order after challenging it in court.[66] OWS said it was the first time they had received a subpoena, and that they were committed to treat "any future requests the same way".[68]

      In March 2017, Open Whisper Systems transitioned Signal's calling system from RedPhone to WebRTC, also adding the ability to make video calls with the mobile apps.[38][69][16]

      2018–present: Signal Technology Foundation[edit]

      See also: Signal Technology Foundation

      On 21 February 2018, Moxie Marlinspike and WhatsApp co-founder Brian Acton announced the formation of the Signal Technology Foundation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization whose mission is "to support, accelerate, and broaden Signal's mission of making private communication accessible and ubiquitous".[39][23] Acton started the foundation with $50 million in funding after leaving WhatsApp's parent company Facebook in September 2017.[23] According to the announcement, Acton is the foundation's executive chairman and Marlinspike continues as the CEO of Signal Messenger.[39] As of 2020[update], Signal ran entirely on donations, as a nonprofit.[70]

      Between November 2019 and February 2020, Signal added support for iPads, view-once images and videos, stickers, and reactions.[71] They also announced plans for a new group messaging system and an "experimental method for storing encrypted contacts in the cloud."[71]

      Signal was reportedly popularized in the United States during the George Floyd protests. Heightened awareness of police monitoring led protesters to use the app to communicate. Black Lives Matterorganizers had used the app "for several years".[72][70] During the first week of June, the encrypted messaging app was downloaded over five times more than it had been during the week prior to the murder of George Floyd.[72] In June 2020, Signal Foundation announced a new feature that enables users to blur faces in photos, in response to increased federal efforts to monitor protesters.[70][73]

      On 7 January 2021, Signal saw a surge in new user registrations, which temporarily overwhelmed Signal's capacity to deliver account verification messages.[74]CNN and MacRumors linked the surge with a WhatsApp privacy policy change and a Signal endorsement by Elon Musk and Edward Snowden via Twitter.[74][75] International newspapers reported similar trends in the United Arab Emirates.[76]Reuters reported that more than 100,000 people had installed Signal between 7 and 8 January.[77]

      Between 12 and 14 January 2021, the number of Signal installations listed on Google Play increased from over 10 million to over 50 million.[78][79][80][81] On 15 January 2021, due to the surge of new users, Signal was overwhelmed with the new traffic and was down for all users.[82][83] On the afternoon of 16 January, Signal announced via Twitter that service had been restored.[84]

      Features[edit]

      Signal allows users to make one-to-one and group[85] voice and video[16] calls with up to 8 people on iOS, Android, and desktop.[17] All calls are made over a Wi-Fi or data connection and (with the exception of data fees) are free of charge, including long distance and international.[56] Signal also allows users to send text messages, files,[15] voice notes, pictures, GIFs,[86] and video messages over a Wi-Fi or data connection to other Signal users on iOS, Android and a desktop app. The app also supports group messaging.

      All communications between Signal users are automatically end-to-end encrypted (the encryption keys are generated and stored on the phones, not on the servers).[87] To verify that a correspondent is really the person that they claim to be, Signal users can compare key fingerprints (or scan QR codes) out-of-band.[88] The app employs a trust-on-first-use mechanism in order to notify the user if a correspondent's key changes.[88]

      On Android, users can opt into making Signal the default SMS/MMS application, allowing them to send and receive unencrypted SMS messages in addition to the standard end-to-end encrypted Signal messages.[32] Users can then use the same application to communicate with contacts who do not have Signal.[32] Sending a message unencrypted is also available as an override between Signal users.[89]

      TextSecure allowed the user to set a passphrase that encrypted the local message database and the user's encryption keys.[90] This did not encrypt the user's contact database or message timestamps.[90] The Signal applications on Android and iOS can be locked with the phone's pin, passphrase, or biometric authentication.[91] The user can define a "screen lock timeout" interval, providing an additional protection mechanism in case the phone is lost or stolen.[88][91]

      Signal also allows users to set timers to messages.[92] After a specified time interval, the messages will be deleted from both the sender's and the receivers' devices.[92] The time interval can be between five seconds and one week long,[92] and the timer begins for each recipient once they have read their copy of the message.[93] The developers have stressed that this is meant to be "a collaborative feature for conversations where all participants want to automate minimalist data hygiene, not for situations where your contact is your adversary".[92][93]

      Signal excludes users' messages from non-encrypted cloud backups by default.[94]

      Signal allows users to automatically blur faces of people in photos to protect their identities.[95][96]

      Signal is integrating a system that lets users send and receive payments in MOB, short for MobileCoin, a form of cryptocurrency. As of September 2021, the system is in beta and works only in Germany, the UK, France and Switzerland.[97]

      Limitations[edit]

      Signal requires that the user provides a phone number for verification,[98] eliminating the need for user names or passwords and facilitating contact discovery (see below).[99] The number does not have to be the same as on the device's SIM card; it can also be a VoIP number[98] or a landline as long as the user can receive the verification code and have a separate device to set up the software. A number can only be registered on one mobile device at a time.[100] Account registration requires an iOS or Android device.[21][22]

      This mandatory connection to a phone number (a feature Signal shares with WhatsApp, KakaoTalk, and others) has been criticized as a "major issue" for privacy-conscious users who are not comfortable with giving out their private phone number.[99] A workaround is to use a secondary phone number.[99] The ability to choose a public, changeable username instead of sharing one's phone number is a widely-requested feature.[99][101][102]

      Using phone numbers as identifiers may also create security risks that arise from the possibility of an attacker taking over a phone number.[99]

      Usability[edit]

      In July 2016, the Internet Society published a user study that assessed the ability of Signal users to detect and deter man-in-the-middle attacks.[19] The study concluded that 21 out of 28 participants failed to correctly compare public key fingerprints in order to verify the identity of other Signal users, and that the majority of these users still believed they had succeeded, while in reality they failed.[19] Four months later, Signal's user interface was updated to make verifying the identity of other Signal users simpler.[103]

      Architecture[edit]

      Encryption protocols[edit]

      Main article: Signal Protocol

      Signal messages are encrypted with the Signal Protocol (formerly known as the TextSecure Protocol). The protocol combines the Double Ratchet Algorithm, prekeys, and an Extended Triple Diffie–Hellman (X3DH) handshake.[104][105] It uses Curve25519, AES-256, and HMAC-SHA256 as primitives.[18] The protocol provides confidentiality, integrity, authentication, participant consistency, destination validation, forward secrecy, backward secrecy (aka future secrecy), causality preservation, message unlinkability, message repudiation, participation repudiation, and asynchronicity.[106] It does not provide anonymity preservation, and requires servers for the relaying of messages and storing of public key material.[106]

      The Signal Protocol also supports end-to-end encrypted group chats. The group chat protocol is a combination of a pairwise double ratchet and multicast encryption.[106] In addition to the properties provided by the one-to-one protocol, the group chat protocol provides speaker consistency, out-of-order resilience, dropped message resilience, computational equality, trust equality, subgroup messaging, as well as contractible and expandable membership.[106]

      In October 2014, researchers from Ruhr University Bochum published an analysis of the Signal Protocol.[18] Among other findings, they presented an unknown key-share attack on the protocol, but in general, they found that it was secure.[107] In October 2016, researchers from UK's University of Oxford, Queensland University of Technology in Australia, and Canada's McMaster University published a formal analysis of the protocol.[108][109] They concluded that the protocol was cryptographically sound.[108][109] In July 2017, researchers from Ruhr University Bochum found during another analysis of group messengers a purely theoretic attack against the group protocol of Signal: A user who knows the secret group ID of a group (due to having been a group member previously or stealing it from a member's device) can become a member of the group. Since the group ID cannot be guessed and such member changes are displayed to the remaining members, this attack is likely to be difficult to carry out without being detected.[110]

      As of August 2018[update], the Signal Protocol has been implemented into WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Skype,[111] and Google Allo,[112] making it possible for the conversations of "more than a billion people worldwide" to be end-to-end encrypted.[113] In Google Allo, Skype and Facebook Messenger, conversations are not encrypted with the Signal Protocol by default; they only offer end-to-end encryption in an optional mode.[94][114][111][115]

      Up until March 2017, Signal's voice calls were encrypted with SRTP and the ZRTP key-agreement protocol, which was developed by Phil Zimmermann.[1][116] In March 2017, Signal transitioned to a new WebRTC-based calling system that introduced the ability to make video calls.[69] Signal's voice and video calling functionalities use the app's Signal Protocol channel for authentication instead of ZRTP.[117][38][16]

      Authentication[edit]

      To verify that a correspondent is really the person that they claim to be, Signal users can compare key fingerprints (or scan QR codes) out-of-band.[88] The app employs a trust on first use mechanism in order to notify the user if a correspondent's key changes.[88]

      Local storage[edit]

      Once the messages are received and decrypted on a user's device, they are stored locally in a SQLite database that is encrypted with SQLCipher.[118] The key to decrypt this database is also stored locally on the user's device and can be accessed if the device is unlocked.[118][119] In December 2020, Cellebrite published a blog post announcing that one of their products could now access this key and use it to "decrypt the Signal app".[118][120] Technology reporters later published articles about how Cellebrite had claimed to have the ability to "break into the Signal app" and "crack Signal's encryption".[121][122] This latter interpretation was rejected by several experts,[123] as well as representatives from Signal, who said the original post by Cellebrite had been about accessing data on "an unlocked Android phone in their physical possession" and that they "could have just opened the app to look at the messages".[124][125] Similar extraction tools also exist for iOS devices and Signal Desktop.[126][127]

      Servers[edit]

      Signal relies on centralized servers that are maintained by Signal Messenger. In addition to routing Signal's messages, the servers also facilitate the discovery of contacts who are also registered Signal users and the automatic exchange of users' public keys. By default, Signal's voice and video calls are peer-to-peer.[16] If the caller is not in the receiver's address book, the call is routed through a server in order to hide the users' IP addresses.[16]

      Contact discovery[edit]

      The servers store registered users' phone numbers, public key material and push tokens which are necessary for setting up calls and transmitting messages.[128] In order to determine which contacts are also Signal users, cryptographic hashes of the user's contact numbers are periodically transmitted to the server.[129] The server then checks to see if those match any of the SHA256 hashes of registered users and tells the client if any matches are found.[129] The hashed numbers are thereafter discarded from the server.[128] In 2014, Moxie Marlinspike wrote that it is easy to calculate a map of all possible hash inputs to hash outputs and reverse the mapping because of the limited preimage space (the set of all possible hash inputs) of phone numbers, and that a "practical privacy preserving contact discovery remains an unsolved problem."[130][129] In September 2017, Signal's developers announced that they were working on a way for the Signal client applications to "efficiently and scalably determine whether the contacts in their address book are Signal users without revealing the contacts in their address book to the Signal service."[131][132]

      Metadata[edit]

      All client-server communications are protected by TLS.[116][133] Signal's developers have asserted that their servers do not keep logs about who called whom and when.[134] In June 2016, Marlinspike told The Intercept that "the closest piece of information to metadata that the Signal server stores is the last time each user connected to the server, and the precision of this information is reduced to the day, rather than the hour, minute, and second".[94]

      The group messaging mechanism is designed so that the servers do not have access to the membership list, group title, or group icon.[59] Instead, the creation, updating, joining, and leaving of groups is done by the clients, which deliver pairwise messages to the participants in the same way that one-to-one messages are delivered.[135][136]

      Federation[edit]

      Signal's server architecture was federated between December 2013 and February 2016. In December 2013, it was announced that the messaging protocol Signal uses had successfully been integrated into the Android-based open-source operating system CyanogenMod.[137][138][139] Since CyanogenMod 11.0, the client logic was contained in a system app called WhisperPush. According to Signal's developers, the Cyanogen team ran their own Signal messaging server for WhisperPush clients, which federated with the main server, so that both clients could exchange messages with each other.[139] The WhisperPush source code was available under the GPLv3 license.[140] In February 2016, the CyanogenMod team discontinued WhisperPush and recommended that its users switch to Signal.[141] In May 2016, Moxie Marlinspike wrote that federation with the CyanogenMod servers had degraded the user experience and held back development, and that their servers will probably not federate with other servers again.[142]

      In May 2016, Moxie Marlinspike requested that a third-party client called LibreSignal not use the Signal service or the Signal name.[142] As a result, on 24 May 2016 the LibreSignal project posted that the project was "abandoned".[143] The functionality provided by LibreSignal was subsequently incorporated into Signal by Marlinspike.[144]

      Licensing[edit]

      The complete source code of the Signal clients for Android, iOS and desktop is available on GitHub under a free software license.[12][11][13] This enables interested parties to examine the code and help the developers verify that everything is behaving as expected. It also allows advanced users to compile their own copies of the applications and compare them with the versions that are distributed by Signal Messenger. In March 2016, Moxie Marlinspike wrote that, apart from some shared libraries that are not compiled with the project build due to a lack of Gradle NDK support, Signal for Android is reproducible.[145] Signal's servers are also open source.[14]

      Reception[edit]

      Security[edit]

      In October 2014, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) included Signal in their updated surveillance self-defense guide.[146] In November 2014, Signal received a perfect score on the EFF's secure messaging scorecard;[87] it received points for having communications encrypted in transit, having communications encrypted with keys the provider does not have access to (end-to-end encryption), making it possible for users to independently verify their correspondents' identities, having past communications secure if the keys are stolen (forward secrecy), having the code open to independent review (open source), having the security designs well-documented, and having a recent independent security audit.[87] At the time, "ChatSecure + Orbot", Pidgin (with OTR), Silent Phone, and Telegram's optional "secret chats" also received seven out of seven points on the scorecard.[87]

      Former NSA contractor Edward Snowden has endorsed Signal on multiple occasions.[36] In his keynote speech at SXSW in March 2014, he praised Signal's predecessors (TextSecure and RedPhone) for their ease of use.[147][148] In December 2014, Der Spiegel leaked slides from an internal NSA presentation dating to June 2012 in which the NSA deemed Signal's encrypted voice calling component (RedPhone) on its own as a "major threat" to its mission of accessing users' private data, and when used in conjunction with other privacy tools such as Cspace, Tor, Tails, and TrueCrypt was ranked as "catastrophic" and led to a "near-total loss/lack of insight to target communications [and] presence".[149][150]

      Following the 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak, it was reported by Vanity Fair that Marc Elias (the general counsel for Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign) had instructed DNC staffers to exclusively use Signal when saying anything negative about Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump.[151][152]

      In March 2017, Signal was approved by the sergeant at arms of the U.S. Senate for use by senators and their staff.[153][154]

      On the 27 September 2019, Natalie Silvanovich, a security engineer working in Google's vulnerability research team at Project Zero, disclosed how a bug in the Android Signal client could let an attacker spy on a user without their knowledge.[155] The bug allowed an attacker to phone a target device, mute the call, and the call would complete - keeping the audio open but without the owner being aware of that (however they would still be aware of a ring and / or a vibration from the initial call).[156] The bug was fixed the same day that it was reported and patched in release 4.47.7 of the app for Android.[157]

      In February 2020, the European Commission recommended that its staff use Signal.[158] Following the George Floyd protests, which began in May 2020, Signal was downloaded 121,000 times in the U.S. between 25 May and 4 June.[159] In July 2020, Signal became the most downloaded app in Hong Kong on both the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store after the passage of the Hong Kong national security law.[160]

      As of January 2021[update], Signal is a contact method for securely providing tips to major news outlets such as The Washington Post,[161]The Guardian,[162]The New York Times,[163] and The Wall Street Journal.[164]

      Signal received criticism from security expert Bruce Schneier, who previously praised the app, for its plans to add cryptocurrency payments through MobileCoin. Schneier stated that this would bloat the app and attract unwanted attention from the authorities.[165]

      Blocking[edit]

        Countries where Signal's domain fronting is enabled by default

        Countries where Signal is blocked (March 2021)

      In December 2016, Egypt blocked access to Signal.[166] In response, Signal's developers added domain fronting to their service.[167] This allows Signal users in a specific country to circumvent censorship by making it look like they are connecting to a different internet-based service.[167][168] As of March 2021[update], Signal's domain fronting is enabled by default in Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Qatar, and Iran.[169]

      As of January 2018[update], Signal was blocked in Iran.[170][171] Signal's domain fronting feature relies on the Google App Engine (GAE) service.[171][170] This does not work in Iran because Google has blocked Iranian access to GAE in order to comply with U.S. sanctions.[170][172]

      In early 2018, Google App Engine made an internal change to stop domain fronting for all countries. Due to this issue, Signal made a public change to use Amazon CloudFront for domain fronting. However, AWS also announced that they would be making changes to their service to prevent domain fronting. As a result, Signal said that they would start investigating new methods/approaches.[173][174] Signal switched from AWS back to Google in April 2019.[175]

      In January 2021, Iran removed the app from app stores,[176][177] and blocked Signal.[178] Signal was later blocked by China in March 2021.[179]

      Audience[edit]

      Use by activists[edit]

      In March 2021, the United Nations recommended Myanmar residents use Signal and ProtonMail to pass and preserve evidence of human rights violations committed during the 2021 coup.[180]

      The far right, right-wing militias and white nationalists, used Signal for organizing their actions, including the Unite the Right II rally in 2018.[181][182][183][184]

      Use by criminals[edit]

      By design, Signal is not able to read user messages, which precludes attempts at moderation. This has been confirmed by independent audits of Signal's algorithms.[185] According to CNN, "[t]he same technology that keeps a conversation private between you and a family member also gives a safe haven to a terrorist in Syria and the person in the United States he's trying to recruit to commit an act of mass murder."[186]

      In 2016, authorities in India arrested members of a suspected ISIS-affiliated terrorist cell that communicated via Signal and Telegram.[187]

      Developers and funding[edit]

      Main article: Signal Foundation

      The development of Signal and its predecessors at Open Whisper Systems was funded by a combination of consulting contracts, donations and grants.[188] The Freedom of the Press Foundation acted as Signal's fiscal sponsor.[39][189][190] Between 2013 and 2016, the project received grants from the Knight Foundation,[191] the Shuttleworth Foundation,[192] and almost $3 million from the US government–sponsored Open Technology Fund.[193] Signal is now developed by Signal Messenger LLC, a software company founded by Moxie Marlinspike and Brian Acton in 2018, which is wholly owned by a tax-exempt nonprofit corporation called the Signal Technology Foundation, also created by them in 2018. The Foundation was funded with an initial loan of $50 million from Acton, "to support, accelerate, and broaden Signal's mission of making private communication accessible and ubiquitous".[39][23][194] All of the organization's products are published as free and open-source software.

      See also[edit]

      Notes[edit]

      References[edit]

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      3. ^https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.thoughtcrime.securesms.
      4. ^"Release 5.25.0.13".
      5. ^"Release v5.24.0".
      6. ^https://github.com/signalapp/Signal-Android/releases/tag/v5.23.1.
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      8. ^"Release v5.25.0-beta.2".
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      40. ^Greenberg, Andy (21 February 2018). "WhatsApp Co-Founder Puts $50M Into Signal To Supercharge Encrypted Messaging". Wired. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
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      70. ^ abc
      Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signal_(software)

      Signal’s famous encryption may have been cracked

      RSS

      TechRadar is supported by its audience. When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. Learn more

      By Joel Khalili last updated

      Signal was quick to repudiate the claims

      A security firm has gone public with claims that it cracked the encryption used by messaging app Signal, which is famed for the level of privacy afforded to its users.

      According to a blog post published by Israeli company Cellebrite, “decrypting messages and attachments sent with Signal has been all but impossible...until now”.

      The firm goes on to set out the method by which it was allegedly able to decrypt messages sent using the Signal app for Android. No mention was made of the iOS version.

      Was Signal really cracked?

      The blog post offers up a long-winded and technical explanation but, in short, Cellebrite says it was able to get hold of the decryption key by “reading a value from the shared preferences file”.

      The firm then used information found in Signal’s open source code to establish how the key could be used to decrypt a database containing messages and attachments.

      Since first publication, however, the blog post has been altered significantly, with the description of the method removed entirely. Signal was also quick to dismiss the claims, which the company has suggested are reductive to the point of being misleading.

      “This was an article about ‘advanced techniques’ Cellebrite uses to decode a Signal message db...on an *unlocked* Android device! They could have also just opened the app to look at the messages,” said Moxie Marlinspike, Signal creator.

      “The whole article read like amateur hour, which is I assume why they removed it,” he added.

      The suggestion is that cracking Signal encryption on a locked Android device is another question entirely and conducting the test using an unlocked phone defeats the object, because messages would be accessible anyway.

      If Cellebrite’s claims hold water, though, it is possible the firm removed the meat of the post for another reason entirely, according to an expert in computer science. 

      “I suspect someone in authority told them to [alter the post], or they realised they may have provided enough detail to allow others - who don’t just supply to law enforcement agencies - to achieve the same result,” said Alan Woodward, University of Surrey.

      • Here's our rundown of the best VPN services on the market

      Via BBC

      Joel Khalili is a Staff Writer working across both TechRadar Pro and ITProPortal. He's interested in receiving pitches around cybersecurity, data privacy, cloud, storage, internet infrastructure, mobile, 5G and blockchain.

      Источник: https://www.techradar.com/news/signals-famous-encryption-may-have-been-cracked
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      Источник: http://fashionbid.it/9O6K

      D-Bus Specification

      Version 0.36

      Revision History
      Revision latest
      See commit log
      Revision 0.362020-04-21
      • Fix a typo in an annotated hexdump of part of a message
      Revision 0.352019-05-13
      • Add UnixGroupIDs to GetConnectionCredentials
      • Avoid redundancy in defining interface name syntax
      Revision 0.342018-12-04pwithnall
      • Correct ObjectManager example AddMatch rule
      Revision 0.332018-04-27smcv
      • Deprecate TCP on Unix
      • Deprecate non-local TCP everywhere
      Revision 0.322018-01-30smcv
      • Deprecate hyphen/minus in bus names, with underscore as the recommended replacement
      • Document the convention for escaping leading digits in interface and bus names (org._7_zip)
      • Recommend using SASL EXTERNAL where possible, or DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 otherwise
      • Message buses should not accept SASL ANONYMOUS
      • Document the meaning of non-empty SASL authorization identity strings
      • Document the optional argument to SASL ERROR
      • Document who sends each SASL command, and the possible replies
      • Document the authentication states used to negotiate Unix fd-passing
      • Servers that relay messages should remove header fields they do not understand
      • Clarify who controls each header field
      • Document the HeaderFiltering message bus feature flag
      • Non-message-bus servers may use the SENDER and DESTINATION fields
      Revision 0.312017-06-29smcv, TG
      • Don't require implementation-specific search paths to be lowest priority
      • Correct regex syntax for optionally-escaped bytes in addresses so it includes hyphen-minus, forward slash and underscore as intended
      • Describe all message bus methods in the same section
      • Clarify the correct object path for method calls to the message bus
      • Document that the message bus implements Introspectable, Peer and Properties
      • Add new Features and Interfaces properties for message bus feature-discovery
      • Add unix:dir=..., which resembles unix:tmpdir=... but never uses abstract sockets
      • Don't require eavesdrop='true' to be accepted from connections not sufficiently privileged to use it successfully
      • Formally deprecate eavesdropping in favour of BecomeMonitor
      Revision 0.302016-11-28smcv, PW
      Define the jargon terms service activation and auto-starting more clearly. Document the SystemdService key in service files. Document how AppArmor interacts with service activation, and the new AssumedAppArmorLabel key in service files (dbus-daemon 1.11.8). Clarify intended behaviour of Properties.GetAll. Use versioned interface and bus names in most examples.
      Revision 0.292016-10-10PW
      Introspection arguments may contain annotations; recommend against using the object path '/'
      Revision 0.282016-08-15PW
      Clarify serialization
      Revision 0.272015-12-02LU
      Services should not send unwanted replies
      Revision 0.262015-02-19smcv, rh
      GetConnectionCredentials can return LinuxSecurityLabel or WindowsSID; add privileged BecomeMonitor method
      Revision 0.252014-11-10smcv, lennart
      ALLOW_INTERACTIVE_AUTHORIZATION flag, EmitsChangedSignal=const
      Revision 0.242014-10-01SMcV
      non-method-calls never expect a reply even without NO_REPLY_EXPECTED; document how to quote match rules
      Revision 0.232014-01-06SMcV, CY
      method call messages with no INTERFACE may be considered an error; document tcp:bind=... and nonce-tcp:bind=...; define listenable and connectable addresses
      Revision 0.222013-10-09
      add GetConnectionCredentials, document GetAtdAuditSessionData, document GetConnectionSELinuxSecurityContext, document and correct .service file syntax and naming
      Revision 0.212013-04-25smcv
      allow Unicode noncharacters in UTF-8 (Unicode Corrigendum #9)
      Revision 0.2022 February 2013smcv, walters
      reorganise for clarity, remove false claims about basic types, mention /o/fd/DBus
      Revision 0.1920 February 2012smcv/lp
      formally define unique connection names and well-known bus names; document best practices for interface, bus, member and error names, and object paths; document the search path for session and system services on Unix; document the systemd transport
      Revision 0.1829 July 2011smcv
      define eavesdropping, unicast, broadcast; add eavesdrop match keyword; promote type system to a top-level section
      Revision 0.171 June 2011smcv/davidz
      define ObjectManager; reserve extra pseudo-type-codes used by GVariant
      Revision 0.1611 April 2011
      add path_namespace, arg0namespace; argNpath matches object paths
      Revision 0.153 November 2010
      Revision 0.1412 May 2010
      Revision 0.1323 Dezember 2009
      Revision 0.127 November, 2006
      Revision 0.116 February 2005
      Revision 0.1028 January 2005
      Revision 0.97 Januar 2005
      Revision 0.806 September 2003
      First released document.

      D-Bus is a system for low-overhead, easy to use interprocess communication (IPC). In more detail:

      • D-Bus is low-overhead because it uses a binary protocol, and does not have to convert to and from a text format such as XML. Because D-Bus is intended for potentially high-resolution same-machine IPC, not primarily for Internet IPC, this is an interesting optimization. D-Bus is also designed to avoid round trips and allow asynchronous operation, much like the X protocol.

      • D-Bus is easy to use because it works in terms of messages rather than byte streams, and automatically handles a lot of the hard IPC issues. Also, the D-Bus library is designed to be wrapped in a way that lets developers use their framework's existing object/type system, rather than learning a new one specifically for IPC.

      The base D-Bus protocol is a one-to-one (peer-to-peer or client-server) protocol, specified in the section called “Message Protocol”. That is, it is a system for one application to talk to a single other application. However, the primary intended application of the protocol is the D-Bus message bus, specified in the section called “Message Bus Specification”. The message bus is a special application that accepts connections from multiple other applications, and forwards messages among them.

      Uses of D-Bus include notification of system changes (notification of when a camera is plugged in to a computer, or a new version of some software has been installed), or desktop interoperability, for example a file monitoring service or a configuration service.

      D-Bus is designed for two specific use cases:

      • A "system bus" for notifications from the system to user sessions, and to allow the system to request input from user sessions.

      • A "session bus" used to implement desktop environments such as GNOME and KDE.

      D-Bus is not intended to be a generic IPC system for any possible application, and intentionally omits many features found in other IPC systems for this reason.

      At the same time, the bus daemons offer a number of features not found in other IPC systems, such as single-owner "bus names" (similar to X selections), on-demand startup of services, and security policies. In many ways, these features are the primary motivation for developing D-Bus; other systems would have sufficed if IPC were the only goal.

      D-Bus may turn out to be useful in unanticipated applications, but future versions of this spec and the reference implementation probably will not incorporate features that interfere with the core use cases.

      The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. However, the document could use a serious audit to be sure it makes sense to do so. Also, they are not capitalized.

      Protocol and Specification Stability

      The D-Bus protocol is frozen (only compatible extensions are allowed) as of November 8, 2006. However, this specification could still use a fair bit of work to make interoperable reimplementation possible without reference to the D-Bus reference implementation. Thus, this specification is not marked 1.0. To mark it 1.0, we'd like to see someone invest significant effort in clarifying the specification language, and growing the specification to cover more aspects of the reference implementation's behavior.

      Until this work is complete, any attempt to reimplement D-Bus will probably require looking at the reference implementation and/or asking questions on the D-Bus mailing list about intended behavior. Questions on the list are very welcome.

      Nonetheless, this document should be a useful starting point and is to our knowledge accurate, though incomplete.

      D-Bus has a type system, in which values of various types can be serialized into a sequence of bytes referred to as the wire format in a standard way. Converting a value from some other representation into the wire format is called marshaling and converting it back from the wire format is unmarshaling.

      The D-Bus protocol does not include type tags in the marshaled data; a block of marshaled values must have a known type signature. The type signature is made up of zero or more single complete types, each made up of one or more type codes.

      A type code is an ASCII character representing the type of a value. Because ASCII characters are used, the type signature will always form a valid ASCII string. A simple string compare determines whether two type signatures are equivalent.

      A single complete type is a sequence of type codes that fully describes one type: either a basic type, or a single fully-described container type. A single complete type is a basic type code, a variant type code, an array with its element type, or a struct with its fields (all of which are defined below). So the following signatures are not single complete types:

      "aa" "(ii" "ii)"

      And the following signatures contain multiple complete types:

      "ii" "aiai" "(ii)(ii)"

      Note however that a single complete type may contain multiple other single complete types, by containing a struct or dict entry.

      The simplest type codes are the basic types, which are the types whose structure is entirely defined by their 1-character type code. Basic types consist of fixed types and string-like types.

      The fixed types are basic types whose values have a fixed length, namely BYTE, BOOLEAN, DOUBLE, UNIX_FD, and signed or unsigned integers of length 16, 32 or 64 bits.

      As a simple example, the type code for 32-bit integer () is the ASCII character 'i'. So the signature for a block of values containing a single would be:

      "i"

      A block of values containing two would have this signature:

      "ii"

      The characteristics of the fixed types are listed in this table.

      Conventional nameASCII type-codeEncoding
      (121)Unsigned 8-bit integer
      (98)Boolean value: 0 is false, 1 is true, any other value allowed by the marshalling format is invalid
      (110)Signed (two's complement) 16-bit integer
      (113)Unsigned 16-bit integer
      (105)Signed (two's complement) 32-bit integer
      (117)Unsigned 32-bit integer
      (120)Signed (two's complement) 64-bit integer (mnemonic: x and t are the first characters in "sixty" not already used for something more common)
      (116)Unsigned 64-bit integer
      (100)IEEE 754 double-precision floating point
      (104)Unsigned 32-bit integer representing an index into an out-of-band array of file descriptors, transferred via some platform-specific mechanism (mnemonic: h for handle)

      The string-like types are basic types with a variable length. The value of any string-like type is conceptually 0 or more Unicode codepoints encoded in UTF-8, none of which may be U+0000. The UTF-8 text must be validated strictly: in particular, it must not contain overlong sequences or codepoints above U+10FFFF.

      Since D-Bus Specification version 0.21, in accordance with Unicode Corrigendum #9, the "noncharacters" U+FDD0..U+FDEF, U+nFFFE and U+nFFFF are allowed in UTF-8 strings (but note that older versions of D-Bus rejected these noncharacters).

      The marshalling formats for the string-like types all end with a single zero (NUL) byte, but that byte is not considered to be part of the text.

      The characteristics of the string-like types are listed in this table.

      An object path is a name used to refer to an object instance. Conceptually, each participant in a D-Bus message exchange may have any number of object instances (think of C++ or Java objects) and each such instance will have a path. Like a filesystem, the object instances in an application form a hierarchical tree.

      Object paths are often namespaced by starting with a reversed domain name and containing an interface version number, in the same way as interface names and well-known bus names. This makes it possible to implement more than one service, or more than one version of a service, in the same process, even if the services share a connection but cannot otherwise co-operate (for instance, if they are implemented by different plugins).

      Using an object path of is allowed, but recommended against, as it makes versioning of interfaces hard. Any signals emitted from a D-Bus object have the service’s unique bus name associated with them, rather than its well-known name. This means that receipients of the signals must rely entirely on the signal name and object path to work out which interface the signal originated from.

      For instance, if the owner of is developing a D-Bus API for a music player, they might use the hierarchy of object paths that start with for its objects.

      The following rules define a valid object path. Implementations must not send or accept messages with invalid object paths.

      • The path may be of any length.

      • The path must begin with an ASCII '/' (integer 47) character, and must consist of elements separated by slash characters.

      • Each element must only contain the ASCII characters "[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_"

      • No element may be the empty string.

      • Multiple '/' characters cannot occur in sequence.

      • A trailing '/' character is not allowed unless the path is the root path (a single '/' character).

      An implementation must not send or accept invalid signatures. Valid signatures will conform to the following rules:

      • The signature is a list of single complete types. Arrays must have element types, and structs must have both open and close parentheses.

      • Only type codes, open and close parentheses, and open and close curly brackets are allowed in the signature. The type code is not allowed in signatures, because parentheses are used instead. Similarly, the type code is not allowed in signatures, because curly brackets are used instead.

      • The maximum depth of container type nesting is 32 array type codes and 32 open parentheses. This implies that the maximum total depth of recursion is 64, for an "array of array of array of ... struct of struct of struct of ..." where there are 32 array and 32 struct.

      • The maximum length of a signature is 255.

      When signatures appear in messages, the marshalling format guarantees that they will be followed by a nul byte (which can be interpreted as either C-style string termination or the INVALID type-code), but this is not conceptually part of the signature.

      In addition to basic types, there are four container types: , , , and .

      has a type code, ASCII character 'r', but this type code does not appear in signatures. Instead, ASCII characters '(' and ')' are used to mark the beginning and end of the struct. So for example, a struct containing two integers would have this signature:

      "(ii)"

      Structs can be nested, so for example a struct containing an integer and another struct:

      "(i(ii))"

      The value block storing that struct would contain three integers; the type signature allows you to distinguish "(i(ii))" from "((ii)i)" or "(iii)" or "iii".

      The type code 'r' is not currently used in the D-Bus protocol, but is useful in code that implements the protocol. This type code is specified to allow such code to interoperate in non-protocol contexts.

      Empty structures are not allowed; there must be at least one type code between the parentheses.

      has ASCII character 'a' as type code. The array type code must be followed by a single complete type. The single complete type following the array is the type of each array element. So the simple example is:

      "ai"

      which is an array of 32-bit integers. But an array can be of any type, such as this array-of-struct-with-two-int32-fields:

      "a(ii)"

      Or this array of array of integer:

      "aai"

      has ASCII character 'v' as its type code. A marshaled value of type will have the signature of a single complete type as part of the value. This signature will be followed by a marshaled value of that type.

      Unlike a message signature, the variant signature can contain only a single complete type. So "i", "ai" or "(ii)" is OK, but "ii" is not. Use of variants may not cause a total message depth to be larger than 64, including other container types such as structures.

      A works exactly like a struct, but rather than parentheses it uses curly braces, and it has more restrictions. The restrictions are: it occurs only as an array element type; it has exactly two single complete types inside the curly braces; the first single complete type (the "key") must be a basic type rather than a container type. Implementations must not accept dict entries outside of arrays, must not accept dict entries with zero, one, or more than two fields, and must not accept dict entries with non-basic-typed keys. A dict entry is always a key-value pair.

      The first field in the is always the key. A message is considered corrupt if the same key occurs twice in the same array of . However, for performance reasons implementations are not required to reject dicts with duplicate keys.

      In most languages, an array of dict entry would be represented as a map, hash table, or dict object.

      The following table summarizes the D-Bus types.

      CategoryConventional NameCodeDescription
      reserved0 (ASCII NUL)Not a valid type code, used to terminate signatures
      fixed, basic121 (ASCII 'y')8-bit unsigned integer
      fixed, basic98 (ASCII 'b')Boolean value, 0 is and 1 is . Everything else is invalid.
      fixed, basic110 (ASCII 'n')16-bit signed integer
      fixed, basic113 (ASCII 'q')16-bit unsigned integer
      fixed, basic105 (ASCII 'i')32-bit signed integer
      fixed, basic117 (ASCII 'u')32-bit unsigned integer
      fixed, basic120 (ASCII 'x')64-bit signed integer
      fixed, basic116 (ASCII 't')64-bit unsigned integer
      fixed, basic100 (ASCII 'd')IEEE 754 double
      string-like, basic115 (ASCII 's')UTF-8 string (must be valid UTF-8). Must be nul terminated and contain no other nul bytes.
      string-like, basic111 (ASCII 'o')Name of an object instance
      string-like, basic103 (ASCII 'g')A type signature
      container97 (ASCII 'a')Array
      container114 (ASCII 'r'), 40 (ASCII '('), 41 (ASCII ')')Struct; type code 114 'r' is reserved for use in bindings and implementations to represent the general concept of a struct, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus.
      container118 (ASCII 'v') Variant type (the type of the value is part of the value itself)
      container101 (ASCII 'e'), 123 (ASCII '{'), 125 (ASCII '}') Entry in a dict or map (array of key-value pairs). Type code 101 'e' is reserved for use in bindings and implementations to represent the general concept of a dict or dict-entry, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus.
      fixed, basic104 (ASCII 'h')Unix file descriptor
      reserved(reserved)109 (ASCII 'm')Reserved for a 'maybe' type compatible with the one in GVariant, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus until specified here
      reserved(reserved)42 (ASCII '*')Reserved for use in bindings/implementations to represent any single complete type, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus.
      reserved(reserved)63 (ASCII '?')Reserved for use in bindings/implementations to represent any basic type, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus.
      reserved(reserved)64 (ASCII '@'), 38 (ASCII '&'), 94 (ASCII '^')Reserved for internal use by bindings/implementations, and must not appear in signatures used on D-Bus. GVariant uses these type-codes to encode calling conventions.

      D-Bus defines a marshalling format for its type system, which is used in D-Bus messages. This is not the only possible marshalling format for the type system: for instance, GVariant (part of GLib) re-uses the D-Bus type system but implements an alternative marshalling format.

      Given a type signature, a block of bytes can be converted into typed values. This section describes the format of the block of bytes. Byte order and alignment issues are handled uniformly for all D-Bus types.

      A block of bytes has an associated byte order. The byte order has to be discovered in some way; for D-Bus messages, the byte order is part of the message header as described in the section called “Message Format”. For now, assume that the byte order is known to be either little endian or big endian.

      Each value in a block of bytes is aligned "naturally," for example 4-byte values are aligned to a 4-byte boundary, and 8-byte values to an 8-byte boundary. Boundaries are calculated globally, with respect to the first byte in the message. To properly align a value, alignment padding may be necessary before the value. The alignment padding must always be the minimum required padding to properly align the following value; and it must always be made up of nul bytes. The alignment padding must not be left uninitialized (it can't contain garbage), and more padding than required must not be used.

      As an exception to natural alignment, and values are always aligned to an 8-byte boundary, regardless of the alignments of their contents.

      To marshal and unmarshal fixed types, you simply read one value from the data block corresponding to each type code in the signature. All signed integer values are encoded in two's complement, DOUBLE values are IEEE 754 double-precision floating-point, and BOOLEAN values are encoded in 32 bits (of which only the least significant bit is used).

      The string-like types (STRING, OBJECT_PATH and SIGNATURE) are all marshalled as a fixed-length unsigned integer giving the length of the variable part, followed by nonzero bytes of UTF-8 text, followed by a single zero (nul) byte which is not considered to be part of the text. The alignment of the string-like type is the same as the alignment of : any padding required for appears immediately before itself. There is never any alignment padding between and the string text, or between the string text and the trailing nul. The alignment padding for the next value in the message (if there is one) starts after the trailing nul.

      For the STRING and OBJECT_PATH types, is encoded in 4 bytes (a ), leading to 4-byte alignment. For the SIGNATURE type, is encoded as a single byte (a ). As a result, alignment padding is never required before a SIGNATURE.

      For example, if the current position is a multiple of 8 bytes from the beginning of a little-endian message, strings ‘foo’, ‘+’ and ‘bar’ would be serialized in sequence as follows:

      no padding required, we are already at a multiple of 4 0x03 0x00 0x00 0x00 length of ‘foo’ = 3 0x66 0x6f 0x6f ‘foo’ 0x00 trailing nulno padding required, we are already at a multiple of 4 0x01 0x00 0x00 0x00 length of ‘+’ = 1 0x2b ‘+’ 0x00 trailing nul 0x00 0x00 2 bytes of padding to reach next multiple of 4 0x03 0x00 0x00 0x00 length of ‘bar’ = 3 0x62 0x61 0x72 ‘bar’ 0x00 trailing nul

      Arrays are marshalled as a giving the length of the array data in bytes, followed by alignment padding to the alignment boundary of the array element type, followed by the bytes of the array elements marshalled in sequence. does not include the padding after the length, or any padding after the last element. i.e. should be divisible by the number of elements in the array.

      For instance, if the current position in the message is a multiple of 8 bytes and the byte-order is big-endian, an array containing only the 64-bit integer 5 would be marshalled as:

      00 00 00 08 = 8 bytes of data 00 00 00 00 padding to 8-byte boundary 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 05 first element = 5

      Arrays have a maximum length defined to be 2 to the 26th power or 67108864 (64 MiB). Implementations must not send or accept arrays exceeding this length.

      Structs and dict entries are marshalled in the same way as their contents, but their alignment is always to an 8-byte boundary, even if their contents would normally be less strictly aligned.

      Variants are marshalled as the of the contents (which must be a single complete type), followed by a marshalled value with the type given by that signature. The variant has the same 1-byte alignment as the signature, which means that alignment padding before a variant is never needed. Use of variants must not cause a total message depth to be larger than 64, including other container types such as structures. (See Valid Signatures.)

      Summary of D-Bus marshalling

      Given all this, the types are marshaled on the wire as follows:

      Conventional NameEncodingAlignment
      Not applicable; cannot be marshaled.N/A
      A single 8-bit byte.1
      As for , but only 0 and 1 are valid values.4
      16-bit signed integer in the message's byte order.2
      16-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order.2
      32-bit signed integer in the message's byte order.4
      32-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order.4
      64-bit signed integer in the message's byte order.8
      64-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order.8
      64-bit IEEE 754 double in the message's byte order.8
      A indicating the string's length in bytes excluding its terminating nul, followed by non-nul string data of the given length, followed by a terminating nul byte. 4 (for the length)
      Exactly the same as except the content must be a valid object path (see above). 4 (for the length)
      The same as except the length is a single byte (thus signatures have a maximum length of 255) and the content must be a valid signature (see above). 1
      A giving the length of the array data in bytes, followed by alignment padding to the alignment boundary of the array element type, followed by each array element. 4 (for the length)
      A struct must start on an 8-byte boundary regardless of the type of the struct fields. The struct value consists of each field marshaled in sequence starting from that 8-byte alignment boundary. 8
      The marshaled of a single complete type, followed by a marshaled value with the type given in the signature. 1 (alignment of the signature)
      Identical to STRUCT. 8
      32-bit unsigned integer in the message's byte order. The actual file descriptors need to be transferred out-of-band via some platform specific mechanism. On the wire, values of this type store the index to the file descriptor in the array of file descriptors that accompany the message.4

      A message consists of a header and a body. If you think of a message as a package, the header is the address, and the body contains the package contents. The message delivery system uses the header information to figure out where to send the message and how to interpret it; the recipient interprets the body of the message.

      The body of the message is made up of zero or more arguments, which are typed values, such as an integer or a byte array.

      Both header and body use the D-Bus type system and format for serializing data.

      A message consists of a header and a body. The header is a block of values with a fixed signature and meaning. The body is a separate block of values, with a signature specified in the header.

      The length of the header must be a multiple of 8, allowing the body to begin on an 8-byte boundary when storing the entire message in a single buffer. If the header does not naturally end on an 8-byte boundary up to 7 bytes of nul-initialized alignment padding must be added.

      The message body need not end on an 8-byte boundary.

      The maximum length of a message, including header, header alignment padding, and body is 2 to the 27th power or 134217728 (128 MiB). Implementations must not send or accept messages exceeding this size.

      The signature of the header is:

      "yyyyuua(yv)"

      Written out more readably, this is:

      BYTE, BYTE, BYTE, BYTE, UINT32, UINT32, ARRAY of STRUCT of (BYTE,VARIANT)

      These values have the following meanings:

      ValueDescription
      1st Endianness flag; ASCII 'l' for little-endian or ASCII 'B' for big-endian. Both header and body are in this endianness.
      2nd Message type. Unknown types must be ignored. Currently-defined types are described below.
      3rd Bitwise OR of flags. Unknown flags must be ignored. Currently-defined flags are described below.
      4th Major protocol version of the sending application. If the major protocol version of the receiving application does not match, the applications will not be able to communicate and the D-Bus connection must be disconnected. The major protocol version for this version of the specification is 1.
      1st Length in bytes of the message body, starting from the end of the header. The header ends after its alignment padding to an 8-boundary.
      2nd The serial of this message, used as a cookie by the sender to identify the reply corresponding to this request. This must not be zero.
      of of (,)An array of zero or more header fields where the byte is the field code, and the variant is the field value. The message type determines which fields are required.

      Message types that can appear in the second byte of the header are:

      Conventional nameDecimal valueDescription
      0This is an invalid type.
      1Method call. This message type may prompt a reply.
      2Method reply with returned data.
      3Error reply. If the first argument exists and is a string, it is an error message.
      4Signal emission.

      Flags that can appear in the third byte of the header:

      Conventional nameHex valueDescription
      0x1

      This message does not expect method return replies or error replies, even if it is of a type that can have a reply; the reply should be omitted.

      Note that METHOD_CALL is the only message type currently defined in this specification that can expect a reply, so the presence or absence of this flag in the other three message types that are currently documented is meaningless: replies to those message types should not be sent, whether this flag is present or not.

      0x2The bus must not launch an owner for the destination name in response to this message.
      0x4

      This flag may be set on a method call message to inform the receiving side that the caller is prepared to wait for interactive authorization, which might take a considerable time to complete. For instance, if this flag is set, it would be appropriate to query the user for passwords or confirmation via Polkit or a similar framework.

      This flag is only useful when unprivileged code calls a more privileged method call, and an authorization framework is deployed that allows possibly interactive authorization. If no such framework is deployed it has no effect. This flag should not be set by default by client implementations. If it is set, the caller should also set a suitably long timeout on the method call to make sure the user interaction may complete. This flag is only valid for method call messages, and shall be ignored otherwise.

      Interaction that takes place as a part of the effect of the method being called is outside the scope of this flag, even if it could also be characterized as authentication or authorization. For instance, in a method call that directs a network management service to attempt to connect to a virtual private network, this flag should control how the network management service makes the decision "is this user allowed to change system network configuration?", but it should not affect how or whether the network management service interacts with the user to obtain the credentials that are required for access to the VPN.

      If a this flag is not set on a method call, and a service determines that the requested operation is not allowed without interactive authorization, but could be allowed after successful interactive authorization, it may return the error.

      The absence of this flag does not guarantee that interactive authorization will not be applied, since existing services that pre-date this flag might already use interactive authorization. However, existing D-Bus APIs that will use interactive authorization should document that the call may take longer than usual, and new D-Bus APIs should avoid interactive authorization in the absence of this flag.

      The array at the end of the header contains header fields, where each field is a 1-byte field code followed by a field value. A header must contain the required header fields for its message type, and zero or more of any optional header fields. Future versions of this protocol specification may add new fields. Implementations must not invent their own header fields; only changes to this specification may introduce new header fields.

      If an implementation sees a header field code that it does not expect, it must accept and ignore that field, as it will be part of a new (but compatible) version of this specification. This also applies to known header fields appearing in unexpected messages, for example: if a signal has a reply serial it must be ignored even though it has no meaning as of this version of the spec.

      However, implementations must not send or accept known header fields with the wrong type stored in the field value. So for example a message with an field of type would be considered corrupt.

      Server implementations that might relay messages from one mutually-distrustful client to another, such as the message bus, should remove header fields that the server does not recognise. However, a client must assume that the server has not done so, unless it has evidence to the contrary, such as having checked for the message bus feature.

      New header fields controlled by the message bus (similar to ) might be added to this specification in future. Such message fields should normally only be added to messages that are going to be delivered to a client that specifically requested them (for example by calling some method), and the message bus should remove those header fields from all other messages that it relays. This design principle serves two main purposes. One is to avoid unnecessary memory and throughput overhead when delivering messages to clients that are not interested in the new header fields. The other is to give clients a reason to call the method that requests those messages (otherwise, the clients would not work). This is desirable because looking at the reply to that method call is a natural way to check that the message bus guarantees to filter out faked header fields that might have been sent by malicious peers.

      Here are the currently-defined header fields:

      Conventional NameDecimal CodeTypeRequired InDescription
      0N/Anot allowedNot a valid field name (error if it appears in a message)
      1, The object to send a call to, or the object a signal is emitted from. The special path is reserved; implementations should not send messages with this path, and the reference implementation of the bus daemon will disconnect any application that attempts to do so. This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      2 The interface to invoke a method call on, or that a signal is emitted from. Optional for method calls, required for signals. The special interface is reserved; implementations should not send messages with this interface, and the reference implementation of the bus daemon will disconnect any application that attempts to do so. This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      3, The member, either the method name or signal name. This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      4The name of the error that occurred, for errors
      5, The serial number of the message this message is a reply to. (The serial number is the second in the header.) This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      6optional The name of the connection this message is intended for. This field is usually only meaningful in combination with the message bus (see the section called “Message Bus Specification”), but other servers may define their own meanings for it. This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      7optionalUnique name of the sending connection. This field is usually only meaningful in combination with the message bus, but other servers may define their own meanings for it. On a message bus, this header field is controlled by the message bus, so it is as reliable and trustworthy as the message bus itself. Otherwise, this header field is controlled by the message sender, unless there is out-of-band information that indicates otherwise.
      8optional The signature of the message body. If omitted, it is assumed to be the empty signature "" (i.e. the body must be 0-length). This header field is controlled by the message sender.
      9optionalThe number of Unix file descriptors that accompany the message. If omitted, it is assumed that no Unix file descriptors accompany the message. The actual file descriptors need to be transferred via platform specific mechanism out-of-band. They must be sent at the same time as part of the message itself. They may not be sent before the first byte of the message itself is transferred or after the last byte of the message itself. This header field is controlled by the message sender.

      The various names in D-Bus messages have some restrictions.

      There is a maximum name length of 255 which applies to bus names, interfaces, and members.

      Interfaces have names with type , meaning that they must be valid UTF-8. However, there are also some additional restrictions that apply to interface names specifically:

      • Interface names are composed of 2 or more elements separated by a period ('.') character. All elements must contain at least one character.

      • Each element must only contain the ASCII characters "[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_" and must not begin with a digit.

      • Interface names must not exceed the maximum name length.

      Interface names should start with the reversed DNS domain name of the author of the interface (in lower-case), like interface names in Java. It is conventional for the rest of the interface name to consist of words run together, with initial capital letters on all words ("CamelCase"). Several levels of hierarchy can be used. It is also a good idea to include the major version of the interface in the name, and increment it if incompatible changes are made; this way, a single object can implement several versions of an interface in parallel, if necessary.

      For instance, if the owner of is developing a D-Bus API for a music player, they might define interfaces called , and .

      If the author's DNS domain name contains hyphen/minus characters ('-'), which are not allowed in D-Bus interface names, they should be replaced by underscores. If the DNS domain name contains a digit immediately following a period ('.'), which is also not allowed in interface names), the interface name should add an underscore before that digit. For example, if the owner of 7-zip.org defined an interface for out-of-process plugins, it might be named .

      D-Bus does not distinguish between the concepts that would be called classes and interfaces in Java: either can be identified on D-Bus by an interface name.

      Connections have one or more bus names associated with them. A connection has exactly one bus name that is a unique connection name. The unique connection name remains with the connection for its entire lifetime. A bus name is of type , meaning that it must be valid UTF-8. However, there are also some additional restrictions that apply to bus names specifically:

      • Bus names that start with a colon (':') character are unique connection names. Other bus names are called well-known bus names.

      • Bus names are composed of 1 or more elements separated by a period ('.') character. All elements must contain at least one character.

      • Each element must only contain the ASCII characters "[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_-", with "-" discouraged in new bus names. Only elements that are part of a unique connection name may begin with a digit, elements in other bus names must not begin with a digit.

      • Bus names must contain at least one '.' (period) character (and thus at least two elements).

      • Bus names must not begin with a '.' (period) character.

      • Bus names must not exceed the maximum name length.

      Note that the hyphen ('-') character is allowed in bus names but not in interface names. It is also problematic or not allowed in various specifications and APIs that refer to D-Bus, such as Flatpak application IDs, the interface in the Desktop Entry Specification, and the convention that an application's "main" interface and object path resemble its bus name. To avoid situations that require special-case handling, it is recommended that new D-Bus names consistently replace hyphens with underscores.

      Like interface names, well-known bus names should start with the reversed DNS domain name of the author of the interface (in lower-case), and it is conventional for the rest of the well-known bus name to consist of words run together, with initial capital letters. As with interface names, including a version number in well-known bus names is a good idea; it's possible to have the well-known bus name for more than one version simultaneously if backwards compatibility is required.

      As with interface names, if the author's DNS domain name contains hyphen/minus characters they should be replaced by underscores, and if it contains leading digits they should be escaped by prepending an underscore. For example, if the owner of 7-zip.org used a D-Bus name for an archiving application, it might be named .

      If a well-known bus name implies the presence of a "main" interface, that "main" interface is often given the same name as the well-known bus name, and situated at the corresponding object path. For instance, if the owner of is developing a D-Bus API for a music player, they might define that any application that takes the well-known name should have an object at the object path which implements the interface .

      Member (i.e. method or signal) names:

      • Must only contain the ASCII characters "[A-Z][a-z][0-9]_" and may not begin with a digit.

      • Must not contain the '.' (period) character.

      • Must not exceed the maximum name length.

      • Must be at least 1 byte in length.

      It is conventional for member names on D-Bus to consist of capitalized words with no punctuation ("camel-case"). Method names should usually be verbs, such as , and signal names should usually be a description of an event, such as .

      Error names have the same restrictions as interface names.

      Error names have the same naming conventions as interface names, and often contain ; for instance, the owner of might define the errors and . The errors defined by D-Bus itself, such as , follow a similar pattern.

      Each of the message types (, , , and ) has its own expected usage conventions and header fields. This section describes these conventions.

      Some messages invoke an operation on a remote object. These are called method call messages and have the type tag . Such messages map naturally to methods on objects in a typical program.

      A method call message is required to have a header field indicating the name of the method. Optionally, the message has an field giving the interface the method is a part of. Including the in all method call messages is strongly recommended.

      In the absence of an field, if two or more interfaces on the same object have a method with the same name, it is undefined which of those methods will be invoked. Implementations may choose to either return an error, or deliver the message as though it had an arbitrary one of those interfaces.

      In some situations (such as the well-known system bus), messages are filtered through an access-control list external to the remote object implementation. If that filter rejects certain messages by matching their interface, or accepts only messages to specific interfaces, it must also reject messages that have no : otherwise, malicious applications could use this to bypass the filter.

      Method call messages also include a field indicating the object to invoke the method on. If the call is passing through a message bus, the message will also have a field giving the name of the connection to receive the message.

      When an application handles a method call message, it is required to return a reply. The reply is identified by a header field indicating the serial number of the being replied to. The reply can have one of two types; either or .

      If the reply has type , the arguments to the reply message are the return value(s) or "out parameters" of the method call. If the reply has type , then an "exception" has been thrown, and the call fails; no return value will be provided. It makes no sense to send multiple replies to the same method call.

      Even if a method call has no return values, a reply is required, so the caller will know the method was successfully processed.

      The or reply message must have the header field.

      If a message has the flag , then the application receiving the method should not send the reply message (regardless of whether the reply would have been or ).

      Unless a message has the flag , if the destination name does not exist then a program to own the destination name will be started (activated) before the message is delivered. See the section called “Message Bus Starting Services (Activation)”. The message will be held until the new program is successfully started or has failed to start; in case of failure, an error will be returned. This flag is only relevant in the context of a message bus, it is ignored during one-to-one communication with no intermediate bus.

      Mapping method calls to native APIs

      APIs for D-Bus may map method calls to a method call in a specific programming language, such as C++, or may map a method call written in an IDL to a D-Bus message.

      In APIs of this nature, arguments to a method are often termed "in" (which implies sent in the ), or "out" (which implies returned in the ). Some APIs such as CORBA also have "inout" arguments, which are both sent and received, i.e. the caller passes in a value which is modified. Mapped to D-Bus, an "inout" argument is equivalent to an "in" argument, followed by an "out" argument. You can't pass things "by reference" over the wire, so "inout" is purely an illusion of the in-process API.

      Given a method with zero or one return values, followed by zero or more arguments, where each argument may be "in", "out", or "inout", the caller constructs a message by appending each "in" or "inout" argument, in order. "out" arguments are not represented in the caller's message.

      The recipient constructs a reply by appending first the return value if any, then each "out" or "inout" argument, in order. "in" arguments are not represented in the reply message.

      Error replies are normally mapped to exceptions in languages that have exceptions.

      In converting from native APIs to D-Bus, it is perhaps nice to map D-Bus naming conventions ("FooBar") to native conventions such as "fooBar" or "foo_bar" automatically. This is OK as long as you can say that the native API is one that was specifically written for D-Bus. It makes the most sense when writing object implementations that will be exported over the bus. Object proxies used to invoke remote D-Bus objects probably need the ability to call any D-Bus method, and thus a magic name mapping like this could be a problem.

      This specification doesn't require anything of native API bindings; the preceding is only a suggested convention for consistency among bindings.

      Unlike method calls, signal emissions have no replies. A signal emission is simply a single message of type . It must have three header fields: giving the object the signal was emitted from, plus and giving the fully-qualified name of the signal. The header is required for signals, though it is optional for method calls.

      Messages of type are most commonly replies to a , but may be returned in reply to any kind of message. The message bus for example will return an in reply to a signal emission if the bus does not have enough memory to send the signal.

      An may have any arguments, but if the first argument is a , it must be an error message. The error message may be logged or shown to the user in some way.

      Notation in this document

      This document uses a simple pseudo-IDL to describe particular method calls and signals. Here is an example of a method call:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.StartServiceByName (in STRING name, in UINT32 flags, out UINT32 resultcode)

      This means = org.freedesktop.DBus, = StartServiceByName, arguments are and , argument is . Remember that the field can't contain any '.' (period) characters so it's known that the last part of the name in the "IDL" is the member name.

      In C++ that might end up looking like this:

      unsigned int org::freedesktop::DBus::StartServiceByName (const char *name, unsigned int flags);

      or equally valid, the return value could be done as an argument:

      void org::freedesktop::DBus::StartServiceByName (const char *name, unsigned int flags, unsigned int *resultcode);

      It's really up to the API designer how they want to make this look. You could design an API where the namespace wasn't used in C++, using STL or Qt, using varargs, or whatever you wanted.

      Signals are written as follows:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.NameLost (STRING name)

      Signals don't specify "in" vs. "out" because only a single direction is possible.

      It isn't especially encouraged to use this lame pseudo-IDL in actual API implementations; you might use the native notation for the language you're using, or you might use COM or CORBA IDL, for example.

      Invalid Protocol and Spec Extensions

      For security reasons, the D-Bus protocol should be strictly parsed and validated, with the exception of defined extension points. Any invalid protocol or spec violations should result in immediately dropping the connection without notice to the other end. Exceptions should be carefully considered, e.g. an exception may be warranted for a well-understood idiosyncrasy of a widely-deployed implementation. In cases where the other end of a connection is 100% trusted and known to be friendly, skipping validation for performance reasons could also make sense in certain cases.

      Generally speaking violations of the "must" requirements in this spec should be considered possible attempts to exploit security, and violations of the "should" suggestions should be considered legitimate (though perhaps they should generate an error in some cases).

      The following extension points are built in to D-Bus on purpose and must not be treated as invalid protocol. The extension points are intended for use by future versions of this spec, they are not intended for third parties. At the moment, the only way a third party could extend D-Bus without breaking interoperability would be to introduce a way to negotiate new feature support as part of the auth protocol, using EXTENSION_-prefixed commands. There is not yet a standard way to negotiate features.

      • In the authentication protocol (see the section called “Authentication Protocol”) unknown commands result in an ERROR rather than a disconnect. This enables future extensions to the protocol. Commands starting with EXTENSION_ are reserved for third parties.

      • The authentication protocol supports pluggable auth mechanisms.

      • The address format (see the section called “Server Addresses”) supports new kinds of transport.

      • Messages with an unknown type (something other than , , , ) are ignored. Unknown-type messages must still be well-formed in the same way as the known messages, however. They still have the normal header and body.

      • Header fields with an unknown or unexpected field code must be ignored, though again they must still be well-formed.

      • New standard interfaces (with new methods and signals) can of course be added.

      Before the flow of messages begins, two applications must authenticate. A simple plain-text protocol is used for authentication; this protocol is a SASL profile, and maps fairly directly from the SASL specification. The message encoding is NOT used here, only plain text messages.

      Using SASL in D-Bus requires that we define the meaning of non-empty authorization identity strings. When D-Bus is used on Unix platforms, a non-empty SASL authorization identity represents a Unix user. An authorization identity consisting entirely of ASCII decimal digits represents a numeric user ID as defined by POSIX, for example for the root user or for the first user created on many systems. Non-numeric authorization identities are not required to be accepted or supported, but if used, they must be interpreted as a login name as found in the field of POSIX , for example , and normalized to the corresponding numeric user ID. For best interoperability, clients and servers should use numeric user IDs.

      When D-Bus is used on Windows platforms, a non-empty SASL authorization identity represents a Windows security identifier (SID) in its string form, for example for a domain or local computer user or for the LOCAL_SYSTEM user. The user-facing usernames such as or are not used in the D-Bus protocol.

      In examples, "C:" and "S:" indicate lines sent by the client and server respectively. The client sends the first line, and the server must respond to each line from the client with a single-line reply, with one exception: there is no reply to the BEGIN command.

      The protocol is a line-based protocol, where each line ends with \r\n. Each line begins with an all-caps ASCII command name containing only the character range [A-Z_], a space, then any arguments for the command, then the \r\n ending the line. The protocol is case-sensitive. All bytes must be in the ASCII character set. Commands from the client to the server are as follows:

      • AUTH [mechanism] [initial-response]

      • CANCEL

      • BEGIN

      • DATA <data in hex encoding>

      • ERROR [human-readable error explanation]

      • NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD

      From server to client are as follows:

      • REJECTED <space-separated list of mechanism names>

      • OK <GUID in hex>

      • DATA <data in hex encoding>

      • ERROR [human-readable error explanation]

      • AGREE_UNIX_FD

      Unofficial extensions to the command set must begin with the letters "EXTENSION_", to avoid conflicts with future official commands. For example, "EXTENSION_COM_MYDOMAIN_DO_STUFF".

      Special credentials-passing nul byte

      Immediately after connecting to the server, the client must send a single nul byte. This byte may be accompanied by credentials information on some operating systems that use sendmsg() with SCM_CREDS or SCM_CREDENTIALS to pass credentials over UNIX domain sockets. However, the nul byte must be sent even on other kinds of socket, and even on operating systems that do not require a byte to be sent in order to transmit credentials. The text protocol described in this document begins after the single nul byte. If the first byte received from the client is not a nul byte, the server may disconnect that client.

      A nul byte in any context other than the initial byte is an error; the protocol is ASCII-only.

      The credentials sent along with the nul byte may be used with the SASL mechanism EXTERNAL.

      The AUTH command is sent by the client to the server. The server replies with DATA, OK or REJECTED.

      If an AUTH command has no arguments, it is a request to list available mechanisms. The server must respond with a REJECTED command listing the mechanisms it understands, or with an error.

      If an AUTH command specifies a mechanism, and the server supports said mechanism, the server should begin exchanging SASL challenge-response data with the client using DATA commands.

      If the server does not support the mechanism given in the AUTH command, it must send either a REJECTED command listing the mechanisms it does support, or an error.

      If the [initial-response] argument is provided, it is intended for use with mechanisms that have no initial challenge (or an empty initial challenge), as if it were the argument to an initial DATA command. If the selected mechanism has an initial challenge and [initial-response] was provided, the server should reject authentication by sending REJECTED.

      If authentication succeeds after exchanging DATA commands, an OK command must be sent to the client.

      The CANCEL command is sent by the client to the server. The server replies with REJECTED.

      At any time up to sending the BEGIN command, the client may send a CANCEL command. On receiving the CANCEL command, the server must send a REJECTED command and abort the current authentication exchange.

      The DATA command may come from either client or server, and simply contains a hex-encoded block of data to be interpreted according to the SASL mechanism in use. If sent by the client, the server replies with DATA, OK or REJECTED.

      Some SASL mechanisms support sending an "empty string"; FIXME we need some way to do this.

      The BEGIN command is sent by the client to the server. The server does not reply.

      The BEGIN command acknowledges that the client has received an OK command from the server and completed any feature negotiation that it wishes to do, and declares that the stream of messages is about to begin.

      The first octet received by the server after the \r\n of the BEGIN command from the client must be the first octet of the authenticated/encrypted stream of D-Bus messages.

      Unlike all other commands, the server does not reply to the BEGIN command with an authentication command of its own. After the \r\n of the reply to the command before BEGIN, the next octet received by the client must be the first octet of the authenticated/encrypted stream of D-Bus messages.

      The REJECTED command is sent by the server to the client.

      The REJECTED command indicates that the current authentication exchange has failed, and further exchange of DATA is inappropriate. The client would normally try another mechanism, or try providing different responses to challenges.

      Optionally, the REJECTED command has a space-separated list of available auth mechanisms as arguments. If a server ever provides a list of supported mechanisms, it must provide the same list each time it sends a REJECTED message. Clients are free to ignore all lists received after the first.

      The OK command is sent by the server to the client.

      The OK command indicates that the client has been authenticated. The client may now proceed with negotiating Unix file descriptor passing. To do that it shall send NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD to the server.

      Otherwise, the client must respond to the OK command by sending a BEGIN command, followed by its stream of messages, or by disconnecting. The server must not accept additional commands using this protocol after the BEGIN command has been received. Further communication will be a stream of D-Bus messages (optionally encrypted, as negotiated) rather than this protocol.

      If there is no negotiation, the first octet received by the client after the \r\n of the OK command must be the first octet of the authenticated/encrypted stream of D-Bus messages. If the client negotiates Unix file descriptor passing, the first octet received by the client after the \r\n of the AGREE_UNIX_FD or ERROR reply must be the first octet of the authenticated/encrypted stream.

      The OK command has one argument, which is the GUID of the server. See the section called “Server Addresses” for more on server GUIDs.

      The ERROR command can be sent in either direction. If sent by the client, the server replies with REJECTED.

      The ERROR command indicates that either server or client did not know a command, does not accept the given command in the current context, or did not understand the arguments to the command. This allows the protocol to be extended; a client or server can send a command present or permitted only in new protocol versions, and if an ERROR is received instead of an appropriate response, fall back to using some other technique.

      If an ERROR is sent, the server or client that sent the error must continue as if the command causing the ERROR had never been received. However, the the server or client receiving the error should try something other than whatever caused the error; if only canceling/rejecting the authentication.

      If the D-Bus protocol changes incompatibly at some future time, applications implementing the new protocol would probably be able to check for support of the new protocol by sending a new command and receiving an ERROR from applications that don't understand it. Thus the ERROR feature of the auth protocol is an escape hatch that lets us negotiate extensions or changes to the D-Bus protocol in the future.

      NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD Command

      The NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD command is sent by the client to the server. The server replies with AGREE_UNIX_FD or ERROR.

      The NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD command indicates that the client supports Unix file descriptor passing. This command may only be sent after the connection is authenticated, i.e. after OK was received by the client. This command may only be sent on transports that support Unix file descriptor passing.

      On receiving NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD the server must respond with either AGREE_UNIX_FD or ERROR. It shall respond the former if the transport chosen supports Unix file descriptor passing and the server supports this feature. It shall respond the latter if the transport does not support Unix file descriptor passing, the server does not support this feature, or the server decides not to enable file descriptor passing due to security or other reasons.

      The AGREE_UNIX_FD command is sent by the server to the client.

      The AGREE_UNIX_FD command indicates that the server supports Unix file descriptor passing. This command may only be sent after the connection is authenticated, and the client sent NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD to enable Unix file descriptor passing. This command may only be sent on transports that support Unix file descriptor passing.

      On receiving AGREE_UNIX_FD the client must respond with BEGIN, followed by its stream of messages, or by disconnecting. The server must not accept additional commands using this protocol after the BEGIN command has been received. Further communication will be a stream of D-Bus messages (optionally encrypted, as negotiated) rather than this protocol.

      Future extensions to the authentication and negotiation protocol are possible. For that new commands may be introduced. If a client or server receives an unknown command it shall respond with ERROR and not consider this fatal. New commands may be introduced both before, and after authentication, i.e. both before and after the OK command.

      Figure 1. Example of successful EXTERNAL authentication

      31303030 is ASCII decimal "1000" represented in hex, so the client is authenticating as Unix uid 1000 in this example. C: AUTH EXTERNAL 31303030 S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 2. Example of finding out mechanisms then picking one

      C: AUTH S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 3. Example of client sends unknown command then falls back to regular auth

      532d312d352d3138 is the Windows SID "S-1-5-18" in hex, so the client is authenticating as Windows SID S-1-5-18 in this example. C: FOOBAR S: ERROR C: AUTH EXTERNAL 532d312d352d3138 S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 4. Example of server doesn't support initial auth mechanism

      C: AUTH EXTERNAL S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 5. Example of wrong password or the like followed by successful retry

      C: AUTH EXTERNAL 736d6376 S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f S: REJECTED C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 6. Example of skey cancelled and restarted

      C: AUTH EXTERNAL 32303438 S: REJECTED KERBEROS_V4 SKEY C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: CANCEL S: REJECTED C: AUTH SKEY 7ab83f32ee S: DATA 8799cabb2ea93e C: DATA 8ac876e8f68ee9809bfa876e6f9876g8fa8e76e98f S: OK 1234deadbeef C: BEGIN

      Figure 7. Example of successful EXTERNAL authentication with successful negotiation of Unix FD passing

      C: AUTH EXTERNAL 31303030 S: OK 1234deadbeef C: NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD S: AGREE_UNIX_FD C: BEGIN

      Figure 8. Example of successful EXTERNAL authentication with unsuccessful negotiation of Unix FD passing

      C: AUTH EXTERNAL 31303030 S: OK 1234deadbeef C: NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD S: ERROR Not supported on this OS C: BEGIN

      Authentication state diagrams

      This section documents the auth protocol in terms of a state machine for the client and the server. This is probably the most robust way to implement the protocol.

      To more precisely describe the interaction between the protocol state machine and the authentication mechanisms the following notation is used: MECH(CHALL) means that the server challenge CHALL was fed to the mechanism MECH, which returns one of

      • CONTINUE(RESP) means continue the auth conversation and send RESP as the response to the server;

      • OK(RESP) means that after sending RESP to the server the client side of the auth conversation is finished and the server should return "OK";

      • ERROR means that CHALL was invalid and could not be processed.

      Both RESP and CHALL may be empty.

      The Client starts by getting an initial response from the default mechanism and sends AUTH MECH RESP, or AUTH MECH if the mechanism did not provide an initial response. If the mechanism returns CONTINUE, the client starts in state WaitingForData, if the mechanism returns OK the client starts in state WaitingForOK.

      The client should keep track of available mechanisms and which it mechanisms it has already attempted. This list is used to decide which AUTH command to send. When the list is exhausted, the client should give up and close the connection.

      WaitingForData

      • Receive DATA CHALL

        MECH(CHALL) returns CONTINUE(RESP) → send DATA RESP, goto WaitingForData
        MECH(CHALL) returns OK(RESP) → send DATA RESP, goto WaitingForOK
        MECH(CHALL) returns ERROR → send ERROR [msg], goto WaitingForData
      • Receive REJECTED [mechs] → send AUTH [next mech], goto WaitingForData or WaitingForOK

      • Receive ERROR → send CANCEL, goto WaitingForReject

      • Receive OK → authenticated, choose one:

        send NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD, goto WaitingForAgreeUnixFD
        send BEGIN, terminate auth conversation (successfully)
      • Receive anything else → send ERROR, goto WaitingForData

      WaitingForOK

      • Receive OK → authenticated, choose one:

        send NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD, goto WaitingForAgreeUnixFD
        send BEGIN, terminate auth conversation (successfully)
      • Receive REJECTED [mechs] → send AUTH [next mech], goto WaitingForData or WaitingForOK

      • Receive DATA → send CANCEL, goto WaitingForReject

      • Receive ERROR → send CANCEL, goto WaitingForReject

      • Receive anything else → send ERROR, goto WaitingForOK

      WaitingForReject

      • Receive REJECTED [mechs] → send AUTH [next mech], goto WaitingForData or WaitingForOK

      • Receive anything else → terminate auth conversation, disconnect

      WaitingForAgreeUnixFD By the time this state is reached, the client has already been authenticated.

      • Receive AGREE_UNIX_FD → enable Unix fd passing, send BEGIN, terminate auth conversation (successfully)

      • Receive ERROR → disable Unix fd passing, send BEGIN, terminate auth conversation (successfully)

      • Receive anything else → terminate auth conversation, disconnect

      For the server MECH(RESP) means that the client response RESP was fed to the the mechanism MECH, which returns one of

      • CONTINUE(CHALL) means continue the auth conversation and send CHALL as the challenge to the client;

      • OK means that the client has been successfully authenticated;

      • REJECTED means that the client failed to authenticate or there was an error in RESP.

      The server starts out in state WaitingForAuth. If the client is rejected too many times the server must disconnect the client.

      WaitingForAuth

      • Receive AUTH → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive AUTH MECH RESP

        MECH not valid mechanism → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth
        MECH(RESP) returns CONTINUE(CHALL) → send DATA CHALL, goto WaitingForData
        MECH(RESP) returns OK → send OK, goto WaitingForBegin
        MECH(RESP) returns REJECTED → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth
      • Receive BEGIN → terminate auth conversation, disconnect

      • Receive ERROR → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive anything else → send ERROR, goto WaitingForAuth

      WaitingForData

      • Receive DATA RESP

        MECH(RESP) returns CONTINUE(CHALL) → send DATA CHALL, goto WaitingForData
        MECH(RESP) returns OK → send OK, goto WaitingForBegin
        MECH(RESP) returns REJECTED → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth
      • Receive BEGIN → terminate auth conversation, disconnect

      • Receive CANCEL → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive ERROR → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive anything else → send ERROR, goto WaitingForData

      WaitingForBegin

      • Receive BEGIN → terminate auth conversation, client authenticated

      • Receive NEGOTIATE_UNIX_FD → send AGREE_UNIX_FD or ERROR, goto WaitingForBegin

      • Receive CANCEL → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive ERROR → send REJECTED [mechs], goto WaitingForAuth

      • Receive anything else → send ERROR, goto WaitingForBegin

      Authentication mechanisms

      This section describes some authentication mechanisms that are often supported by practical D-Bus implementations. The D-Bus protocol also allows any other standard SASL mechanism, although implementations of D-Bus often do not.

      The EXTERNAL mechanism is defined in RFC 4422 "Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL)", appendix A "The SASL EXTERNAL Mechanism". This is the recommended authentication mechanism on platforms where credentials can be transferred out-of-band, in particular Unix platforms that can perform credentials-passing over the unix: transport.

      On Unix platforms, interoperable clients should prefer to send the ASCII decimal string form of the integer Unix user ID as the authorization identity, for example 1000. When encoded in hex by the authentication protocol, this will typically result in a line like followed by \r\n.

      On Windows platforms, clients that use the EXTERNAL mechanism should use the Windows security identifier in its string form as the authorization identity, for example for a domain or local computer user or for the LOCAL_SYSTEM user. When encoded in hex by the authentication protocol, this will typically result in a line like followed by \r\n.

      DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 is a D-Bus-specific SASL mechanism. Its reference implementation is part of the reference implementation of D-Bus.

      This mechanism is designed to establish that a client has the ability to read a private file owned by the user being authenticated. If the client can prove that it has access to a secret cookie stored in this file, then the client is authenticated. Thus the security of DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 depends on a secure home directory. This is the recommended authentication mechanism for platforms and configurations where EXTERNAL cannot be used.

      Throughout this description, "hex encoding" must output the digits from a to f in lower-case; the digits A to F must not be used in the DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 mechanism.

      Authentication proceeds as follows:

      • The client sends the username it would like to authenticate as, hex-encoded.

      • The server sends the name of its "cookie context" (see below); a space character; the integer ID of the secret cookie the client must demonstrate knowledge of; a space character; then a randomly-generated challenge string, all of this hex-encoded into one, single string.

      • The client locates the cookie and generates its own randomly-generated challenge string. The client then concatenates the server's decoded challenge, a ":" character, its own challenge, another ":" character, and the cookie. It computes the SHA-1 hash of this composite string as a hex digest. It concatenates the client's challenge string, a space character, and the SHA-1 hex digest, hex-encodes the result and sends it back to the server.

      • The server generates the same concatenated string used by the client and computes its SHA-1 hash. It compares the hash with the hash received from the client; if the two hashes match, the client is authenticated.

      Each server has a "cookie context," which is a name that identifies a set of cookies that apply to that server. A sample context might be "org_freedesktop_session_bus". Context names must be valid ASCII, nonzero length, and may not contain the characters slash ("/"), backslash ("\"), space (" "), newline ("\n"), carriage return ("\r"), tab ("\t"), or period ("."). There is a default context, "org_freedesktop_general" that's used by servers that do not specify otherwise.

      Cookies are stored in a user's home directory, in the directory . This directory must not be readable or writable by other users. If it is, clients and servers must ignore it. The directory contains cookie files named after the cookie context.

      A cookie file contains one cookie per line. Each line has three space-separated fields:

      • The cookie ID number, which must be a non-negative integer and may not be used twice in the same file.

      • The cookie's creation time, in UNIX seconds-since-the-epoch format.

      • The cookie itself, a hex-encoded random block of bytes. The cookie may be of any length, though obviously security increases as the length increases.

      Only server processes modify the cookie file. They must do so with this procedure:

      • Create a lockfile name by appending ".lock" to the name of the cookie file. The server should attempt to create this file using . If file creation fails, the lock fails. Servers should retry for a reasonable period of time, then they may choose to delete an existing lock to keep users from having to manually delete a stale lock.

      • Once the lockfile has been created, the server loads the cookie file. It should then delete any cookies that are old (the timeout can be fairly short), or more than a reasonable time in the future (so that cookies never accidentally become permanent, if the clock was set far into the future at some point). If no recent keys remain, the server may generate a new key.

      • The pruned and possibly added-to cookie file must be resaved atomically (using a temporary file which is rename()'d).

      • The lock must be dropped by deleting the lockfile.

      Clients need not lock the file in order to load it, because servers are required to save the file atomically.

      Server addresses consist of a transport name followed by a colon, and then an optional, comma-separated list of keys and values in the form key=value. Each value is escaped.

      For example:

      unix:path=/tmp/dbus-test

      Which is the address to a unix socket with the path /tmp/dbus-test.

      Value escaping is similar to URI escaping but simpler.

      • The set of optionally-escaped bytes is: . To escape, each byte (note, not character) which is not in the set of optionally-escaped bytes must be replaced with an ASCII percent () and the value of the byte in hex. The hex value must always be two digits, even if the first digit is zero. The optionally-escaped bytes may be escaped if desired.

      • To unescape, append each byte in the value; if a byte is an ASCII percent () character then append the following hex value instead. It is an error if a byte does not have two hex digits following. It is an error if a non-optionally-escaped byte is seen unescaped.

      The set of optionally-escaped bytes is intended to preserve address readability and convenience.

      A server may specify a key-value pair with the key and the value a hex-encoded 16-byte sequence. the section called “UUIDs” describes the format of the field. If present, this UUID may be used to distinguish one server address from another. A server should use a different UUID for each address it listens on. For example, if a message bus daemon offers both UNIX domain socket and TCP connections, but treats clients the same regardless of how they connect, those two connections are equivalent post-connection but should have distinct UUIDs to distinguish the kinds of connection.

      The intent of the address UUID feature is to allow a client to avoid opening multiple identical connections to the same server, by allowing the client to check whether an address corresponds to an already-existing connection. Comparing two addresses is insufficient, because addresses can be recycled by distinct servers, and equivalent addresses may look different if simply compared as strings (for example, the host in a TCP address can be given as an IP address or as a hostname).

      Note that the address key is even though the rest of the API and documentation says "UUID," for historical reasons.

      [FIXME clarify if attempting to connect to each is a requirement or just a suggestion] When connecting to a server, multiple server addresses can be separated by a semi-colon. The library will then try to connect to the first address and if that fails, it'll try to connect to the next one specified, and so forth. For example

      unix:path=/tmp/dbus-test;unix:path=/tmp/dbus-test2

      Some addresses are connectable. A connectable address is one containing enough information for a client to connect to it. For instance, is a connectable address. It is not necessarily possible to listen on every connectable address: for instance, it is not possible to listen on a address.

      Some addresses are listenable. A listenable address is one containing enough information for a server to listen on it, producing a connectable address (which may differ from the original address). Many listenable addresses are not connectable: for instance, is listenable, but not connectable (because it does not specify a port number).

      Listening on an address that is not connectable will result in a connectable address that is not the same as the listenable address. For instance, listening on might result in the connectable address , listening on might result in the connectable address , or listening on might result in the connectable address .

      [FIXME we need to specify in detail each transport and its possible arguments] Current transports include: unix domain sockets (including abstract namespace on linux), launchd, systemd, TCP/IP, an executed subprocess and a debug/testing transport using in-process pipes. Future possible transports include one that tunnels over X11 protocol.

      Unix domain sockets can be either paths in the file system or on Linux kernels, they can be abstract which are similar to paths but do not show up in the file system.

      When a socket is opened by the D-Bus library it truncates the path name right before the first trailing Nul byte. This is true for both normal paths and abstract paths. Note that this is a departure from previous versions of D-Bus that would create sockets with a fixed length path name. Names which were shorter than the fixed length would be padded by Nul bytes.

      Unix domain sockets are not available on Windows. On all other platforms, they are the recommended transport for D-Bus, either used alone or in conjunction with systemd or launchd addresses.

      Unix addresses that specify or are both listenable and connectable. Unix addresses that specify or are only listenable: the corresponding connectable address will specify either or . Similarly, Unix addresses that specify are only listenable, and the corresponding connectable address will specify .

      Unix domain socket addresses are identified by the "unix:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      path(path) Path of the unix domain socket.
      dir(path) Directory in which a socket file with a random file name starting with 'dbus-' will be created by the server. This key can only be used in server addresses, not in client addresses; the resulting client address will have the "path" key instead. be set.
      tmpdir(path) The same as "dir", except that on platforms with abstract sockets, the server may attempt to create an abstract socket whose name starts with this directory instead of a path-based socket. This key can only be used in server addresses, not in client addresses; the resulting client address will have the "abstract" or "path" key instead.
      abstract(string) Unique string in the abstract namespace, often syntactically resembling a path but unconnected to the filesystem namespace. This key is only supported on platforms with abstract Unix sockets, of which Linux is the only known example.
      runtimeIf given, This key can only be used in server addresses, not in client addresses. If set, its value must be . This is typically used in an address string like so that there can be a fallback if is not set.

      Exactly one of the keys , , , or must be provided.

      launchd is an open-source server management system that replaces init, inetd and cron on Apple Mac OS X versions 10.4 and above. It provides a common session bus address for each user and deprecates the X11-enabled D-Bus launcher on OSX.

      launchd allocates a socket and provides it with the unix path through the DBUS_LAUNCHD_SESSION_BUS_SOCKET variable in launchd's environment. Every process spawned by launchd (or dbus-daemon, if it was started by launchd) can access it through its environment. Other processes can query for the launchd socket by executing: $ launchctl getenv DBUS_LAUNCHD_SESSION_BUS_SOCKET This is normally done by the D-Bus client library so doesn't have to be done manually.

      launchd is not available on Microsoft Windows.

      launchd addresses are listenable and connectable.

      launchd addresses are identified by the "launchd:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      env(environment variable)path of the unix domain socket for the launchd created dbus-daemon.

      The key is required.

      systemd is an open-source server management system that replaces init and inetd on newer Linux systems. It supports socket activation. The D-Bus systemd transport is used to acquire socket activation file descriptors from systemd and use them as D-Bus transport when the current process is spawned by socket activation from it.

      The systemd transport accepts only one or more Unix domain or TCP streams sockets passed in via socket activation. Using Unix domain sockets is strongly recommended.

      The systemd transport is not available on non-Linux operating systems.

      The systemd transport defines no parameter keys.

      systemd addresses are listenable, but not connectable. The corresponding connectable address is the or address of the socket.

      The tcp transport provides TCP/IP based connections between clients located on the same or different hosts.

      Similar to remote X11, the TCP transport has no integrity or confidentiality protection, so it should normally only be used across the local loopback interface, for example using an address like or . In particular, configuring the well-known system bus or the well-known session bus to listen on a non-loopback TCP address is insecure.

      On Windows and most Unix platforms, the TCP stack is unable to transfer credentials over a TCP connection, so the EXTERNAL authentication mechanism does not normally work for this transport (although the reference implementation of D-Bus is able to identify loopback TCPv4 connections on Windows by their port number, partially enabling the EXTERNAL mechanism). The DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 mechanism is normally used instead.

      Developers are sometimes tempted to use remote TCP as a debugging tool. However, if this functionality is left enabled in finished products, the result will be dangerously insecure. Instead of using remote TCP, developers should relay connections via Secure Shell or a similar protocol.

      Remote TCP connections were historically sometimes used to share a single session bus between login sessions of the same user on different machines within a trusted local area network, in conjunction with unencrypted remote X11, a NFS-shared home directory and NIS (YP) authentication. This is insecure against an attacker on the same LAN and should be considered strongly deprecated; more specifically, it is insecure in the same ways and for the same reasons as unencrypted remote X11 and NFSv2/NFSv3. The D-Bus maintainers recommend using a separate session bus per (user, machine) pair, only accessible from within that machine.

      All addresses are listenable. addresses in which both and are specified, and is non-zero, are also connectable.

      TCP/IP socket addresses are identified by the "tcp:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      host(string)DNS name or IP address
      bind(string)Used in a listenable address to configure the interface on which the server will listen: either the IP address of one of the local machine's interfaces (most commonly ), or a DNS name that resolves to one of those IP addresses, or '*' to listen on all interfaces simultaneously. If not specified, the default is the same value as "host".
      port(number)The tcp port the server will open. A zero value let the server choose a free port provided from the underlaying operating system. libdbus is able to retrieve the real used port from the server.
      family(string)If set, provide the type of socket family either "ipv4" or "ipv6". If unset, the family is unspecified.

      Nonce-authenticated TCP Sockets

      The nonce-tcp transport provides a modified TCP transport using a simple authentication mechanism, to ensure that only clients with read access to a certain location in the filesystem can connect to the server. The server writes a secret, the nonce, to a file and an incoming client connection is only accepted if the client sends the nonce right after the connect. The nonce mechanism requires no setup and is orthogonal to the higher-level authentication mechanisms described in the Authentication section.

      The nonce-tcp transport is conceptually similar to a combination of the DBUS_COOKIE_SHA1 authentication mechanism and the tcp transport, and appears to have originally been implemented as a result of a misunderstanding of the SASL authentication mechanisms.

      Like the ordinary tcp transport, the nonce-tcp transport has no integrity or confidentiality protection, so it should normally only be used across the local loopback interface, for example using an address like or . Other uses are insecure. See the section called “TCP Sockets” for more information on situations where these transports have been used, and alternatives to these transports.

      Implementations of D-Bus on Windows operating systems normally use a nonce-tcp transport via the local loopback interface. This is because the unix transport, which would otherwise be recommended, is not available on these operating systems.

      On start, the server generates a random 16 byte nonce and writes it to a file in the user's temporary directory. The nonce file location is published as part of the server's D-Bus address using the "noncefile" key-value pair. After an accept, the server reads 16 bytes from the socket. If the read bytes do not match the nonce stored in the nonce file, the server MUST immediately drop the connection. If the nonce match the received byte sequence, the client is accepted and the transport behaves like an ordinary tcp transport.

      After a successful connect to the server socket, the client MUST read the nonce from the file published by the server via the noncefile= key-value pair and send it over the socket. After that, the transport behaves like an ordinary tcp transport.

      All nonce-tcp addresses are listenable. nonce-tcp addresses in which , and are all specified, and is nonzero, are also connectable.

      Nonce TCP/IP socket addresses uses the "nonce-tcp:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      host(string)DNS name or IP address
      bind(string)The same as for tcp: addresses
      port(number)The tcp port the server will open. A zero value let the server choose a free port provided from the underlaying operating system. libdbus is able to retrieve the real used port from the server.
      family(string)If set, provide the type of socket family either "ipv4" or "ipv6". If unset, the family is unspecified.
      noncefile(path)File location containing the secret. This is only meaningful in connectable addresses: a listening D-Bus server that offers this transport will always create a new nonce file.

      Executed Subprocesses on Unix

      This transport forks off a process and connects its standard input and standard output with an anonymous Unix domain socket. This socket is then used for communication by the transport. This transport may be used to use out-of-process forwarder programs as basis for the D-Bus protocol.

      The forked process will inherit the standard error output and process group from the parent process.

      Executed subprocesses are not available on Windows.

      addresses are connectable, but are not listenable.

      Executed subprocess addresses are identified by the "unixexec:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      path(path)Path of the binary to execute, either an absolute path or a binary name that is searched for in the default search path of the OS. This corresponds to the first argument of execlp(). This key is mandatory.
      argv0(string)The program name to use when executing the binary. If omitted the same value as specified for path= will be used. This corresponds to the second argument of execlp().
      argv1, argv2, ...(string)Arguments to pass to the binary. This corresponds to the third and later arguments of execlp(). If a specific argvX is not specified no further argvY for Y > X are taken into account.

      Meta transports are a kind of transport with special enhancements or behavior. Currently available meta transports include: autolaunch

      The autolaunch transport provides a way for dbus clients to autodetect a running dbus session bus and to autolaunch a session bus if not present.

      On Unix, addresses are connectable, but not listenable.

      On Windows, addresses are both connectable and listenable.

      Autolaunch addresses uses the "autolaunch:" prefix and support the following key/value pairs:

      NameValuesDescription
      scope(string)scope of autolaunch (Windows only)
      • "*install-path" - limit session bus to dbus installation path. The dbus installation path is determined from the location of the shared dbus library. If the library is located in a 'bin' subdirectory the installation root is the directory above, otherwise the directory where the library lives is taken as installation root.

        <install-root>/bin/[lib]dbus-1.dll <install-root>/[lib]dbus-1.dll
      • "*user" - limit session bus to the recent user.

      • other values - specify dedicated session bus like "release", "debug" or other

      On start, the server opens a platform specific transport, creates a mutex and a shared memory section containing the related session bus address. This mutex will be inspected by the dbus client library to detect a running dbus session bus. The access to the mutex and the shared memory section are protected by global locks.

      In the recent implementation the autolaunch transport uses a tcp transport on localhost with a port choosen from the operating system. This detail may change in the future.

      Disclaimer: The recent implementation is in an early state and may not work in all cirumstances and/or may have security issues. Because of this the implementation is not documentated yet.

      A working D-Bus implementation uses universally-unique IDs in two places. First, each server address has a UUID identifying the address, as described in the section called “Server Addresses”. Second, each operating system kernel instance running a D-Bus client or server has a UUID identifying that kernel, retrieved by invoking the method org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.GetMachineId() (see the section called “”).

      The term "UUID" in this document is intended literally, i.e. an identifier that is universally unique. It is not intended to refer to RFC4122, and in fact the D-Bus UUID is not compatible with that RFC.

      The UUID must contain 128 bits of data and be hex-encoded. The hex-encoded string may not contain hyphens or other non-hex-digit characters, and it must be exactly 32 characters long. To generate a UUID, the current reference implementation concatenates 96 bits of random data followed by the 32-bit time in seconds since the UNIX epoch (in big endian byte order).

      It would also be acceptable and probably better to simply generate 128 bits of random data, as long as the random number generator is of high quality. The timestamp could conceivably help if the random bits are not very random. With a quality random number generator, collisions are extremely unlikely even with only 96 bits, so it's somewhat academic.

      Implementations should, however, stick to random data for the first 96 bits of the UUID.

      See the section called “Notation in this document” for details on the notation used in this section. There are some standard interfaces that may be useful across various D-Bus applications.

      The interface has two methods:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.Ping () org.freedesktop.DBus.Peer.GetMachineId (out STRING machine_uuid)

      On receipt of the message , an application should do nothing other than reply with a as usual. It does not matter which object path a ping is sent to. The reference implementation handles this method automatically.

      On receipt of the message , an application should reply with a containing a hex-encoded UUID representing the identity of the machine the process is running on. This UUID must be the same for all processes on a single system at least until that system next reboots. It should be the same across reboots if possible, but this is not always possible to implement and is not guaranteed. It does not matter which object path a GetMachineId is sent to. The reference implementation handles this method automatically.

      The UUID is intended to be per-instance-of-the-operating-system, so may represent a virtual machine running on a hypervisor, rather than a physical machine. Basically if two processes see the same UUID, they should also see the same shared memory, UNIX domain sockets, process IDs, and other features that require a running OS kernel in common between the processes.

      The UUID is often used where other programs might use a hostname. Hostnames can change without rebooting, however, or just be "localhost" - so the UUID is more robust.

      the section called “UUIDs” explains the format of the UUID.

      This interface has one method:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.Introspectable.Introspect (out STRING xml_data)

      Objects instances may implement which returns an XML description of the object, including its interfaces (with signals and methods), objects below it in the object path tree, and its properties.

      the section called “Introspection Data Format” describes the format of this XML string.

      Many native APIs will have a concept of object properties or attributes. These can be exposed via the interface.

      org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.Get (in STRING interface_name, in STRING property_name, out VARIANT value); org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.Set (in STRING interface_name, in STRING property_name, in VARIANT value); org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.GetAll (in STRING interface_name, out DICT<STRING,VARIANT> props);

      It is conventional to give D-Bus properties names consisting of capitalized words without punctuation ("CamelCase"), like member names. For instance, the GObject property or the Qt property could be represented on D-Bus as .

      Strictly speaking, D-Bus property names are not required to follow the same naming restrictions as member names, but D-Bus property names that would not be valid member names (in particular, GObject-style dash-separated property names) can cause interoperability problems and should be avoided.

      The available properties and whether they are writable can be determined by calling , see the section called “”.

      An empty string may be provided for the interface name; in this case, if there are multiple properties on an object with the same name, the results are undefined (picking one by according to an arbitrary deterministic rule, or returning an error, are the reasonable possibilities).

      If is called with a valid interface name which contains no properties, an empty array should be returned. If it is called with a valid interface name for which some properties are not accessible to the caller (for example, due to per-property access control implemented in the service), those properties should be silently omitted from the result array. If is called for any such properties, an appropriate access control error should be returned.

      If one or more properties change on an object, the signal may be emitted (this signal was added in 0.14):

      org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.PropertiesChanged (STRING interface_name, DICT<STRING,VARIANT> changed_properties, ARRAY<STRING> invalidated_properties);

      where is a dictionary containing the changed properties with the new values and is an array of properties that changed but the value is not conveyed.

      Whether the signal is supported can be determined by calling . Note that the signal may be supported for an object but it may differ how whether and how it is used on a per-property basis (for e.g. performance or security reasons). Each property (or the parent interface) must be annotated with the annotation to convey this (usually the default value is sufficient meaning that the annotation does not need to be used). See the section called “Introspection Data Format” for details on this annotation.

      An API can optionally make use of this interface for one or more sub-trees of objects. The root of each sub-tree implements this interface so other applications can get all objects, interfaces and properties in a single method call. It is appropriate to use this interface if users of the tree of objects are expected to be interested in all interfaces of all objects in the tree; a more granular API should be used if users of the objects are expected to be interested in a small subset of the objects, a small subset of their interfaces, or both.

      The method that applications can use to get all objects and properties is :

      org.freedesktop.DBus.ObjectManager.GetManagedObjects (out DICT<OBJPATH,DICT<STRING,DICT<STRING,VARIANT>>> objpath_interfaces_and_properties);

      The return value of this method is a dict whose keys are object paths. All returned object paths are children of the object path implementing this interface, i.e. their object paths start with the ObjectManager's object path plus '/'.

      Each value is a dict whose keys are interfaces names. Each value in this inner dict is the same dict that would be returned by the org.freedesktop.DBus.Properties.GetAll() method for that combination of object path and interface. If an interface has no properties, the empty dict is returned.

      Changes are emitted using the following two signals:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.ObjectManager.InterfacesAdded (OBJPATH object_path, DICT<STRING,DICT<STRING,VARIANT>> interfaces_and_properties); org.freedesktop.DBus.ObjectManager.InterfacesRemoved (OBJPATH object_path, ARRAY<STRING> interfaces);

      The signal is emitted when either a new object is added or when an existing object gains one or more interfaces. The signal is emitted whenever an object is removed or it loses one or more interfaces. The second parameter of the signal contains a dict with the interfaces and properties (if any) that have been added to the given object path. Similarly, the second parameter of the signal contains an array of the interfaces that were removed. Note that changes on properties on existing interfaces are not reported using this interface - an application should also monitor the existing PropertiesChanged signal on each object.

      Applications SHOULD NOT export objects that are children of an object (directly or otherwise) implementing this interface but which are not returned in the reply from the method of this interface on the given object.

      The intent of the interface is to make it easy to write a robust client implementation. The trivial client implementation only needs to make two method calls:

      org.freedesktop.DBus.AddMatch (bus_proxy, "type='signal',sender='org.example.App2',path_namespace='/org/example/App2'"); objects = org.freedesktop.DBus.ObjectManager.GetManagedObjects (app_proxy);

      on the message bus and the remote application's , respectively. Whenever a new remote object is created (or an existing object gains a new interface), the signal is emitted, and since this signal contains all properties for the interfaces, no calls to the interface on the remote object are needed. Additionally, since the initial rule already includes signal messages from the newly created child object, no new call is needed.

      The interface was added in version 0.17 of the D-Bus specification.

      Introspection Data Format

      As described in the section called “”, objects may be introspected at runtime, returning an XML string that describes the object. The same XML format may be used in other contexts as well, for example as an "IDL" for generating static language bindings.

      Here is an example of introspection data:

      <!DOCTYPE node PUBLIC "-//freedesktop//DTD D-BUS Object Introspection 1.0//EN" "http://www.freedesktop.org/standards/dbus/1.0/introspect.dtd"> <node name="/com/example/sample_object0"> <interface name="com.example.SampleInterface0"> <method name="Frobate"> <arg name="foo" type="i" direction="in"/> <arg name="bar" type="s" direction="out"/> <arg name="baz" type="a{us}" direction="out"/> <annotation name="org.freedesktop.DBus.Deprecated" value="true"/> </method> <method name="Bazify"> <arg name="bar" type="(iiu)" direction="in"/> <arg name="bar" type="v" direction="out"/> </method> <method name="Mogrify"> <arg name="bar" type="(iiav)" direction="in"/> </method> <signal name="Changed"> <arg name="new_value" type="b"/> </signal> <property name="Bar" type="y" access="readwrite"/> </interface> <node name="child_of_sample_object"/> <node name="another_child_of_sample_object"/> </node>

      A more formal DTD and spec needs writing, but here are some quick notes.

      • Only the root <node> element can omit the node name, as it's known to be the object that was introspected. If the root <node> does have a name attribute, it must be an absolute object path. If child <node> have object paths, they must be relative.

      • If a child <node> has any sub-elements, then they must represent a complete introspection of the child. If a child <node> is empty, then it may or may not have sub-elements; the child must be introspected in order to find out. The intent is that if an object knows that its children are "fast" to introspect it can go ahead and return their information, but otherwise it can omit it.

      • The direction element on <arg> may be omitted, in which case it defaults to "in" for method calls and "out" for signals. Signals only allow "out" so while direction may be specified, it's pointless.

      • The possible directions are "in" and "out", unlike CORBA there is no "inout"

      • The possible property access flags are "readwrite", "read", and "write"

      • Multiple interfaces can of course be listed for one <node>.

      • The "name" attribute on arguments is optional.

      Method, interface, property, signal, and argument elements may have "annotations", which are generic key/value pairs of metadata. They are similar conceptually to Java's annotations and C# attributes. Well-known annotations:

      NameValues (separated by ,)Description
      org.freedesktop.DBus.Deprecatedtrue,falseWhether or not the entity is deprecated; defaults to false
      org.freedesktop.DBus.GLib.CSymbol(string)The C symbol; may be used for methods and interfaces
      org.freedesktop.DBus.Method.NoReplytrue,falseIf set, don't expect a reply to the method call; defaults to false.
      org.freedesktop.DBus.Property.EmitsChangedSignaltrue,invalidates,const,false

      If set to , the signal, see the section called “” is not guaranteed to be emitted if the property changes.

      If set to the property never changes value during the lifetime of the object it belongs to, and hence the signal is never emitted for it.

      If set to the signal is emitted but the value is not included in the signal.

      If set to the signal is emitted with the value included.

      The value for the annotation defaults to if the enclosing interface element does not specify the annotation. Otherwise it defaults to the value specified in the enclosing interface element.

      This annotation is intended to be used by code generators to implement client-side caching of property values. For all properties for which the annotation is set to , or the client may unconditionally cache the values as the properties don't change or notifications are generated for them if they do.

      Message Bus Specification

      The message bus accepts connections from one or more applications. Once connected, applications can exchange messages with other applications that are also connected to the bus.

      In order to route messages among connections, the message bus keeps a mapping from names to connections. Each connection has one unique-for-the-lifetime-of-the-bus name automatically assigned. Applications may request additional names for a connection. Additional names are usually "well-known names" such as "com.example.TextEditor1". When a name is bound to a connection, that connection is said to own the name.

      The bus itself owns a special name, , with an object located at that implements the interface. This service allows applications to make administrative requests of the bus itself. For example, applications can ask the bus to assign a name to a connection.

      Each name may have queued owners. When an application requests a name for a connection and the name is already in use, the bus will optionally add the connection to a queue waiting for the name. If the current owner of the name disconnects or releases the name, the next connection in the queue will become the new owner.

      This feature causes the right thing to happen if you start two text editors for example; the first one may request "com.example.TextEditor1", and the second will be queued as a possible owner of that name. When the first exits, the second will take over.

      Applications may send unicast messages to a specific recipient or to the message bus itself, or broadcast messages to all interested recipients. See the section called “Message Bus Message Routing” for details.

      Each connection has at least one name, assigned at connection time and returned in response to the method call. This automatically-assigned name is called the connection's unique name. Unique names are never reused for two different connections to the same bus.

      Ownership of a unique name is a prerequisite for interaction with the message bus. It logically follows that the unique name is always the first name that an application comes to own, and the last one that it loses ownership of.

      Unique connection names must begin with the character ':' (ASCII colon character); bus names that are not unique names must not begin with this character. (The bus must reject any attempt by an application to manually request a name beginning with ':'.) This restriction categorically prevents "spoofing"; messages sent to a unique name will always go to the expected connection.

      When a connection is closed, all the names that it owns are deleted (or transferred to the next connection in the queue if any).

      A connection can request additional names to be associated with it using the message. the section called “Bus names” describes the format of a valid name. These names can be released again using the message.

      Message Bus Message Routing

      Messages may have a field (see the section called “Header Fields”), resulting in a unicast message. If the field is present, it specifies a message recipient by name. Method calls and replies normally specify this field. The message bus must send messages (of any type) with the field set to the specified recipient, regardless of whether the recipient has set up a match rule matching the message.

      When the message bus receives a signal, if the field is absent, it is considered to be a broadcast signal, and is sent to all applications with message matching rules that match the message. Most signal messages are broadcasts, and no other message types currently defined in this specification may be broadcast.

      Unicast signal messages (those with a field) are not commonly used, but they are treated like any unicast message: they are delivered to the specified receipient, regardless of its match rules. One use for unicast signals is to avoid a race condition in which a signal is emitted before the intended recipient can call the section called “”

      Источник: https://dbus.freedesktop.org/doc/dbus-specification.html

      Installing Signal on your Android Phone

      Step 1: Download and Install Signal

      On your Android device, enter the Google Play Store and search for “Signal.” FindSignal Private Messenger and tap “Install.”

      Store with "Install" text for Signal

      After Signal has finished installing, tap “Open” to launch the app.

      Store with "Open" text for Signal

      Step 2: Grant or Deny Permissions

      After an introductory screen, you will see a dialogue explaining why Signal requests the “Contacts” permission on your phone.

      Contacts permission explainer dialogue

      After tapping “Continue,” your Android phone will prompt you to share your contact list with the Signal app. This will allow you to more easily discover which of your contacts you can communicate with over Signal. If you don’t allow this permission, you can still use Signal, but you will have to manually enter your contact’s phone number to begin chatting with them.

      Contacts permission dialogue

      You will also be prompted to allow Signal to make and manage phone calls. If you don’t allow this permission, you can still use Signal, but Signal will have no way to know if you are currently on a call. As a result, any incoming Signal call may interrupt your regular phone calls.

      Manage phone calls permission dialogue

      Step 3: Register and Verify your Phone Number

      You will now see the following screen. Enter your mobile phone number and tap “Next.”

      Screen to enter your number

      In order to verify your phone number, you will be sent an SMS text with a six-digit code. You will now be prompted to enter that code.

      Screen to enter verification code

      Step 4: Choose a Profile Name and Image

      The profile image and name you choose will be shown to any contacts you have saved in your address book, when you initiate or accept new chats, and when you join new groups. A first name (either genuine or made up) is required, the image and last name are optional. Enter your information in this step and tap “Next.”

      Profile screen after information is entered

      Step 5: Choose a PIN or Passphrase

      A PIN keeps your information safe on Signal’s servers, and if you switch phones you will be able to recover your settings, profile, and contacts using it.Choose a secure PIN or Passphrase and then tap “Next.”

      "Choose pin" screen

      You will be asked to confirm your pin. Enter it again and tap “Next.”

      "Confirm pin" screen

      Anchor link

      Using SignalAnchor link

      In order to use Signal, the person that you are contacting must have Signal installed. If you try to send a message to someone using Signal and they do not have the Signal app installed, it will attempt to send a standard, non-encrypted text message. The standard text message will only be sent if Signal set as the default SMS app. If you try to call the person, it will place a standard phone call.

      Warning: Signal provides you with a list of other Signal users in your contacts. To do this, data representing the phone numbers in your contact list is uploaded to the Signal servers, although this data is deleted almost immediately. This may be an issue for those with particularly sensitive threat models. If sharing your contacts with Signal is a concern, you can deny the contacts permission during setup as described above.

      Communicating with a Contact

      How to Send an Encrypted Message

      Warning: Note that the Signal Foundation, the makers of Signal, use other companies’ infrastructure to send its users alerts that they’ve received a new message. They use Google on Android and Apple on iPhone. That means information about who is receiving messages and when they were received may leak to these companies.

      To get started, tap the pen icon in the center-right of the screen.

      The pen icon circled

      You will see a list of all the registered Signal users in your contacts.

      Registered Signal users to choose from

      When you tap a contact, you’ll be brought to the conversation screen for your contact. From this screen, you can send end-to-end encrypted text, picture, stickers, audio, or video messages.

      How to Initiate an Encrypted Call

      To initiate an encrypted video call to a contact, select that contact and then tap on the camera icon (1). For voice calls, tap on the phone icon (2).

      A conversation with the camera icon labeled "1" and the phone icon labeled "2"

      At this point, Signal may ask for permission to access the microphone. Tap “Allow.”

      Once a call is established, your call is encrypted.

      A one-to-one video call

      Communicating with a Group

      How to Start an Encrypted Group Chat

      You can send an encrypted group message by tapping the pen icon in the center-right of the screen, and then selecting “New Group.”

      The pen icon circled

      "New Group" circled

      On the following screen, you’ll be able to add participants to the group. After adding participants, you can tap the arrow in the lower right corner of the screen.

      Selecting participants in group chat

      You can now name the group, then tap “CREATE.”

      Name group chat

      This will initiate the group chat.

      A group chat

      At this point, anyone can add members to the group. If you wish to change this, or the group name, icon, or add or remove participants, this can be done from the group chat screen by tapping the name of the group.

      Sharing a Link for Anyone to Join Your Group

      Signal allows you to create a link for a group and share that link so anyone can join without having to be added manually.

      To enable the “group link”, open the screen where you are able to message your group. From this screen, tap the name of the group at the top of the screen, then scroll down and tap on “Group link.”

      Group chat settings with "group link" circled

      A screen will appear allowing you to enable the group link, and also choose whether new members must be manually approved by a group administrator. In this example, we enable both of these.

      Once enabled, you can share the group link with others by tapping “Share.”

      Group link setting with both sliders enabled

      If you’ve enabled “Approve New Members,” any time a member tries to join the group you will receive a notification as seen below.

      Group chat with pending members request

      From here, you can tap “VIEW” to be brought to the “Pending group invites” screen. You can also navigate to this screen from the group settings screen.

      Pending group invites screen

      Tap the check mark to approve a request, or the “x” to deny it.

      Restricting and Administering Groups

      When first created, anyone can add new members to a group or change group settings. Groups can be restricted so that only group administrators have these permissions.

      To restrict a group, open the screen where you are able to message your group. From this screen, tap the name of the group at the top of the screen, then scroll down. You will see the group settings under “Add members” and “Edit group info.” Tap on these to change the settings.

      Group chat settings with restriction options circled

      When a group is first created, the only administrator is the group creator. Signal allows the group creator to delegate administrator permissions to members of the group.

      To make a member an administrator, tap on the group name at the top of the screen. Then, scroll all the way down to group members. Tap on a member.

      Group chat settings with a member circled

      You will see the option to make that member an administrator of the group.

      Group chat settings after a member is selected, with "Make group admin" circled

      How to Initiate a Group Encrypted Call

      To initiate an encrypted video call to an entire group, select that group and then tap on the camera icon.

      A group chat with the camera icon circled

      At this point, Signal may ask for permission to record audio. Tap “Allow.”

      You will then see a screen with the ability to swap which camera you are using, turn off video, or mute your microphone before initiating the call. Tap “Start Call.

      Group call preparation screen

      At this point, your call will start. When participants join your call, they will display on your screen.

      Group call screen

      Mute Conversations

      Sometimes conversations can be distracting. One feature that is especially useful for group chats is muting notifications so you don’t see a new notification every time a new message is written. This can be done from the group chat screen by tapping the group name and selecting “Mute.” You can then select how long you’d like the mute to be active for. This can be applied to individual conversations as well, if desired.

      How to Verify your Contacts

      At this point, you can verify the authenticity of the person you are talking with. This is to ensure that their encryption key wasn’t tampered with or replaced with the key of someone else—a process called key verification. Key tampering is a potential risk when downloading an application over an insecure network. Verifying is a process that takes place when you are physically in the presence of the person you are talking with.

      First, open the screen where you are able to message your contact, as described above. From this screen, tap the name of your contact at the top of the screen.

      Conversation with contact name circled

      From the following screen, tap “View safety number.”

      Contact info with "View Safety number" circled

      You will now be brought to a screen which displays a QR code and a ‘safety number.’ This code will be unique for every different contact you are conversing with. Have your contact navigate to the corresponding screen for their conversation with you, so that they have a QR code displayed on their screen as well.

      QR code of contact

      Back on your device, tap the QR code to scan. At this point, Signal may ask for permission to access the camera. Tap “Allow.”

      Now you will be able to use the camera to scan the QR code that is displayed on your contact’s screen. Align your camera to the QR code:

      Verify contact screen scanning other phone

      Hopefully, your camera will scan the QR code and show a green check mark, like this:

        Safety number with green check mark

      This indicates that you have verified your contact successfully. You should now move the “Verified” slider to the right to have the app remember that your contact has been verified. If instead your screen looks like this, something has gone wrong:

      Safety number with red "x"

      You may want to avoid discussing sensitive topics until you have verified keys with that person.

      Note for power users: The screen displaying your QR code also has an icon to share your safety number in the top-right corner. In-person verification is the preferred method, but you may have already authenticated your contact using another secure application. Since you’ve already verified your contact, you can safely use the trust established in that application to verify numbers within Signal, without having to be physically in the presence of your contact. In this case you can share your safety number with that application by tapping the “share” icon and sending your contact your safety number.

      Disappearing Messages

      Signal has a feature called “disappearing messages” which ensures that messages will be removed from your device and the device of your contact(s) in a chat some chosen amount of time after the messages are seen.

      Warning: You do not have control over the person with whom you are chatting—she could be logging or taking screenshots of your conversation, even if you’ve enabled “disappearing messages.”

      To enable “disappearing messages” for a conversation, open the screen where you are able to message your contact or group. From this screen, tap the name of the contact or group at the top of the screen, then tap “Disappearing messages.”

      Conversation settings with "disappearing messages" circled

      A dialogue will appear that allows you to choose how quickly messages will disappear:

      Conversation with disappearing messages dialogue

      After selecting this option, tap “OK,” and then tap the “←” on the top-left corner of the screen, and you should see information in the conversation indicating that “disappearing messages” have been enabled.

      Conversation with notification that disappearing messages is enabled

      You can now send messages with the assurance that they will be removed after the chosen amount of time.

      Sending Files or Photos

      Signal also enables you to share files and photos with your contacts. From the conversation screen, tap the “+” icon in the bottom-right corner of the screen.

      Conversation with "+" circled

      At this point, Signal may ask for permission to your photos. Tap “GIVE ACCESS” and then “Allow” in the subsequent dialogue.

      Photos permission screen

      The bottom of the screen will now display a marquee of photos which you can select to share. Below that, you can also choose to share a file, contact, or your location.

      Marquee of photos to share

      Источник: https://ssd.eff.org/en/module/how-use-signal-android

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