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Offline Password Cracking: The Attack and the Best Defense


 Offline Password Cracking

In Part 1 of this two-part series, I explained what Online Password Cracking is and how to defend against it.

In (the long-awaited) Part 2, I will describe:

  • Offline Password Cracking
  • The primary differences between Online and Offline Password Cracking
  • And my favorite tools for Offline Password Cracking, hashcat

What Is “Offline Password Cracking?”

Offline Password Cracking is an attempt to recover one or more passwords from a password storage file that has been recovered from a target system.  Typically, this would be the Security Account Manager (SAM) file on Windows, or the /etc/shadow file on Linux.  In most cases, Offline Password Cracking will require that an attacker has already attained administrator/root level privileges on the system to get to the storage mechanism.  It is possible, however, that the password hashes could also have been pulled directly from a database using SQL injection, an unprotected flat text file on a web server, or some other poorly protected source.

Using Online Password Cracking, an attacker does not have to have any previous access to the system.  The attacker uses the interface or service presented to legitimate users, such as a login web page or an SSH or FTP server, to try to guess user account names and passwords.  However, Online Password Cracking is much slower than Offline Password Cracking; Offline Password Cracking can be 1000 – 1,000,000 times faster than cracking online.  Online Password Cracking is also noisier, potentially leaving one entry per attempt in a log file.  Once the credential storage mechanism is recovered, Offline Password Cracking leaves no other trace on the victim’s system.

Offline Password Cracking Methods

Offline Password Cracking, like its online counterpart, can use a variety of methods to guess the password.  A Brute Force attack uses all possible combinations of passwords made up of a given character set, up to a given password size.  For instance, a Brute Force attack could attempt to crack an eight-character password consisting of all 95 printable ASCII characters.  This would mean that there would be 95 ^ 8 possible combinations (95x95x95x95x95x95x95x95), or 6,634,204,312,890,625 (6.6 quadrillion) passwords.  Assuming a rate of 1 million guesses per second, an eight-character password would take about 210 years to crack with a Brute Force attack.

An attacker who knows something about the passwords’ pattern can use a Mask attack.  A Mask attack reduces the number of combinations from the Brute Force method by either making guesses or using knowledge about the password’s format.  For instance, if an attacker knows or assumes that the passwords pattern is:

  • Password is eight characters long
  • First character is upper case
  • Next five characters are lower case
  • Next character is a number
  • Next character is a symbol

The number of possible combinations is: 26 x 26 x 26 x 26 x 26 x 26 x 10 x 34 or 105,031,363,840 combinations.  At 1,000,000 combinations per second, this password would take up to 1.2 days to crack with a Mask Attack.  Compare this with 210 years to crack the same password using a Brute Force attack where no assumptions are made about the password.

A Dictionary Attack allows an attacker to use a list of common, well-known passwords, and test a given password hash against each word in that list.  Each word in the list is hashed (with the salt from the password hash to be cracked, if it has one) and compared with the hash.  If it matches, the word from the list is either the original password or another password that can produce the same hash (which is mathematically very improbable).  The website CrackStation has a downloadable dictionary of 1.5 billion passwords, taken from well-known breaches, along with every word in the Wikipedia website, Project Gutenberg, and other lists.  This is the list I typically use in our pentesting engagements.

There are other types of attacks, such as the Rule-Based attack, which can apply permutations to the password(s) to be guessed, and the Hybrid Attack, which combines a limited Brute Force attack with a dictionary attack (such as appending all combinations of four-digit numbers to all words in a dictionary).

With the Online Password Cracking attack, the solution is quite simple.  Allow the user X number of login attempts during Y period, before locking their account for Z minutes/hours (or until an admin unlocks it).  Many web development frameworks have the capability to specify these rules in the configuration file.  Account lockout pretty much ruins the day for the Online Password hacker.

But once the password hash file has been captured, how do you stop the Offline Password hacker?  You can’t lock out the attacker at that point.  The best solution is to slow down the attacker, so that it is prohibitively expensive to crack the passwords offline.  An individual user is not going to notice when their login attempt takes 100ms longer to come back than it did before… but a password cracking attacker sure will!

A Tale of Two Password Hashes

To illustrate, let’s choose a password for an imaginary web application.  Let’s say that the passwords are hashed and stored on disk in a flat file, and that an attacker somehow manages to obtain the file.  We will compare two hash algorithms: SHA1 (unsalted) and the Django Password-Based Key Derivation Function 2 (PBKDF2), using a salted password and 20,000 iterations of the SHA256 hashing algorithm.

As a short side-note: password salting is a defense against a Rainbow Table attack, which uses a dictionary of precomputed hashes for all passwords of a given character set and size.  A Rainbow Table attack is prevented by the salt, or random piece of data added to the password before hashing it (which is usually stored with the password because it is needed when the password being compared is hashed).  A Rainbow Table attacker would have to have a Rainbow Table for each salt value (usually 32-bits or more), and each Rainbow Table can be multiple terabytes in size for even a small password, such as seven characters.  Salting effectively stops a Rainbow Table attack, but does nothing against a GPU-powered Offline Password Cracking attack, since the hashes are generated, adding in the salt, on the fly.

For our password, let’s choose one that appears to be very secure, according to the byzantine password generation rules that we usually live within the corporate world: 051206/jonathan06.  This password would be infeasible to crack using a Brute-Force attack.  However, this password was recovered from the RockYou! Breach, and therefore, it appears in the 14-million password rockyou.txt password dictionary that comes with Kali, which we will be using for this test.

When we hash the password using SHA1, we get: e88d9d595c0da845e31a421f025ffa047a888c98.

When we hash the password using PBKDF2-SHA256 (20,000 iterations), we get: pbkdf2_sha256$20000$3hG9tCawVQRv$YQmMzntbh73QYD+UdEPi4tYpT9LXZciDuNrs01rwc1E=

You might notice that the second password has some meta-data built into the hash, with each field delimited by the $ sign.  The hash itself tells us that it is using the PBKDF2 algorithm, with SHA256 as the basis, with 20,000 iterations, and a salt value of “3hG9tCawVQRv”.  Finally, the part after the last dollar sign is the Base64-encoded version of the binary hash itself (64 characters unencoded, 32 bytes, or 256 bits long).

We can use my favorite password cracking program, hashcat, to crack these passwords using Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) acceleration.  hashcat can leverage the power of the graphics card, much the same way that Crypto Currency mining does, to greatly parallelize password cracking.

hashcat uses numeric codes for the different hash types.  Here is a list of hashes that hashcat can crack, along with examples of what they should look like.  The examples can be helpful when trying to debug error messages about the wrong hash length.

To crack the SHA1 hash, we use the following command line:

./hashcat64.bin -m 100 -a 0 super-secure-password.hash ~/rockyou/rockyou.txt

 How to use Hashcat

So how long does it take a laptop with an Nvidia GTX 1060 (gaming-class) GPU to crack the “super-secure” password using a 14-million-word dictionary?  Less time than it takes to ask the question!

 SHA1 Hash Crack with GPU

SHA1 Hash Crack with GPU

As we can see in the screenshot above, for the SHA1 hash, it took less than one second to find the password in the 14-million password list!

Now, we will run the same attack against the PBKDF2 SHA256 Django hash with the following command line:

./hashcat64.bin -m 10000 -a 0 django_sha256.hash ~/rockyou/rockyou.txt

Cracking PBKDF2

 Django Hash Crack

Django Hash Crack

Django Hash Crack

As we can see from the screenshot above, it takes considerably longer to crack this password (over 1000x longer).  We can crack 31 million SHA1 hashes per second, but only 27 thousand Django hashes per second.  Now, that doesn’t help this poor fellow much.  His password was compromised in a breach, via a ten-year old SQL-injection vulnerability, of a system that stored user passwords in plaintext.

The Remedy

In both cases, our “secure” password was easily cracked on a gamer-class laptop in a few minutes.  So how can we select truly VyprVPN 4.4.8 Crack Torrent + [MAC/Win] 2021 + Activation Key passwords?  The traditional wisdom has always been to pick a password of at least eight characters with a mix of upper case, lower case, numbers, and symbols, with policies often enforcing these rules.  The new guidelines now recommend a minimum of 8 characters, and that systems allow maximum password lengths of no less than 64 characters.  Also gone are the complicated rules that almost guarantee a user will reuse passwords or write them on sticky notes!  A memorable phrase, from a song, poem, novel, or just an easily memorable sentence is preferable.  NIST also recommends password screening when passwords are being selected, to prevent use of commonly used passwords.  As I mentioned in Part 1, login and password credentials by themselves are fairly insecure.  Using multi-factor authentication is highly recommended as well.  If a password should get compromised, the attacker would also need the second factor to log in.

For application developers, never store passwords in plaintext or using weak hashing algorithms, such as MD5 or SHA1.  Use a PBKDF2 format with strong hashing, such as SHA256 or SHA512, and thousands of iterations.  Alternatively, use bcrypt or scrypt, which are designed to slow down the password-checking process. has some excellent guidance on securely storing and checking passwords.

Learn More About Ethical Hacking

 Doc Sewell in Dandong, China, across the Yalu River from Shinuiju, North Korea

Doc Sewell in Dandong, China, across the Yalu River from Shinuiju, North Korea

Author Bio

Daniel “Doc” Sewell is the Lead Cybersecurity Engineer and Trainer for Alpine Security. He currently holds many security-related certifications, including EC-Council Certified Security Analyst (ECSA), Licensed Penetration Tester (Master), Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP), Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) and Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional (CSSLP). Doc has many years of experience in software development, working File Scavenger V6.1 Crack+ Keygen Key Free Download 2021 web interfaces, database applications, thick-client GUIs, battlefield simulation software, automated aircraft scheduling systems, embedded systems, and multi-threaded CPU and GPU applications. Doc’s cybersecurity experience includes penetration testing a fighter jet embedded system, penetration testing medical lab devices, creating phishing emails and fake web sites for social engineering engagements, and teaching security courses to world-renowned organizations such as Lockheed Martin and the Hong Kong Police Department. Doc’s hobbies and interests include home networking, operating systems, computer gaming, reading, movie watching, and traveling.

xargs grep –i "apple"

48) Write a command that will display all .txt files, including its individual permission.


ls -al *.txt

49) Write a command that will do the following:

-look for all files in the current and subsequent directories with an extension c,v
-strip the,v from the result (you can use sed command)
-use the result and use a grep command to search for all occurrences of the word ORANGE in the files.

Find ./ -name "*.c,v"

Using the desktop environment in RHEL 8

Red Hat Enterprise Linux8

Configuring and customizing the GNOME malwarebytes anti malware with crack - Free Activators desktop environment on RHEL 8

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Legal Notice


This document describes how to customize and use GNOME 3, which is the only desktop environment available in RHEL 8. The basics of using GNOME Shell and displaying the graphics are given, as well as the instructions for system administrators for configuring GNOME on a low level linux ftp client - Crack Key For U customizing the desktop environment for multiple users. The documentation also describes how to handle selected system administration tasks using the desktop environment.

Red Hat is committed to replacing problematic language in our code, documentation, and web properties. We are beginning with these four terms: master, slave, blacklist, and whitelist. Because of the enormity of this endeavor, these changes will be implemented gradually over several upcoming releases. For more details, see our CTO Chris Wright’s message.

We appreciate your input on our documentation. Please let us know how we could make it better. To do so:

  • For simple comments on specific passages:

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Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 is shipped with the default desktop environment GNOME 3.

GNOME 3 represents a presentation layer that provides a graphical user interface as well as the focused working environment, which enables avg driver updater activation code 2020 - Free Activators to access all your work from one place.

1.2. GNOME environments, back ends, and display protocols

GNOME 3 provides two user environments:

  • GNOME Standard
  • GNOME Classic

Both environments can use two different protocols as their graphical back ends:

  • The X11 protocol, which uses X.Org as the display server.
  • The Wayland protocol, which uses GNOME Shell as the Wayland compositor and display server.

    This solution of display server is further referred as GNOME Shell on Wayland.

The default combination in RHEL 8 is GNOME Standard environment using GNOME Shell on Wayland as the display server. However, due to certain Wayland limitations, you might want to switch the graphics protocol stack to X11. You may also want to switch from GNOME Standard to GNOME Classic.

Additional resources

1.3. Launching applications in GNOME

This section describes various approaches that you can use to launch available applications in GNOME 3.

1.3.1. Launching an application in GNOME Standard

This procedure launches a graphical application in the GNOME Standard user environment.


  • You are using the GNOME Standard environment.


  1. Go to the Activities Overview screen.
  2. Find the application using either of the following ways:

    • Click the Show Applications icon in the vertical bar on the left side.

      Optionally, you can choose between displaying all or just the frequent applications by using the Frequent or All switch at the bottom of the screen.

      launching applications new

    • Start typing the name of the required application in the search entry.
  3. Click an application from the displayed list.

1.3.2. Launching an application in GNOME Classic

This procedure launches a graphical application in the GNOME Classic user environment.


  • You are using the GNOME Classic environment.


  1. Go to the Applications menu.
  2. Choose the required application from the available categories, which include:

    • Favorites
    • Accessories
    • Internet
    • Office
    • Sound & Video
    • Sundry
    • System Tools
    • Utilities

1.3.3. Launching an application in GNOME using a command

This procedure launches a graphical application in GNOME by entering a command.


  • You know the command that starts the application.


  1. Open a command prompt using either of the following ways:

    • Open a terminal.
    • Press the Alt+F2 shortcut to open the Enter a Command screen.

      enter a command screen new

  2. Write the command in the command prompt.
  3. Confirm the command by pressing Enter.

1.4. Managing desktop icons

You can enable the desktop icons functionality and move files to the desktop.

1.4.1. Desktop icons in RHEL 8

In RHEL 8, the Files application no longer provides the desktop icons functionality. Instead, desktop icons are provided by the Desktop icons GNOME Shell extension, which is available from the package.

Desktop icons in GNOME Classic

The GNOME Classic environment includes the package by default. Desktop icons are always on, and you cannot turn them off.

Desktop icons in GNOME Standard

In GNOME Standard, desktop icons are disabled by default.

If you have only the GNOME Standard environment available, and not GNOME Classic, you must install the package.

1.4.2. Enabling desktop icons in GNOME Standard

This procedure enables the desktop icons functionality in the GNOME Standard environment.


  1. Install the package:

    # yum install gnome-shell-extension-desktop-icons
  2. Open the Tweaks application.
  3. Select →and enable the extension.

    desktop icons on

1.4.3. Creating a desktop icon for a file

This procedure creates a desktop icon for an existing file.


  • The Desktop icons extension is enabled.


  • Move the selected file into the directory.

Verification steps

  • Check that the icon for the file appears on the desktop.

1.5. Disabling the hot corner functionality on GNOME Shell

The GNOME environment provides the hot corner functionality, which is enabled by default. This means that when you move the cursor to the area of the top left corner and press the cursor in this area, the Activities Overview menu opens automatically.

However, you may want to disable this feature to not open Activities Overview unintentionally.

To do so, you can use the following tools:

  • The dconf Editor application
  • The gsettings command-line utility
  • The No topleft hot corner extension

The selection of the tool might depend on whether you want to disable the hot corner functionality for a single user or for all users on the system. By using dconf Editor or gsettings, you can disable hot corner only for a single user. To disable hot corner system-wide, use the No topleft hot corner extension.

1.5.1. Disabling the hot corner functionality for a single user

To disable the hot corner functionality for a single user, you can use either the dconf Editor application or the gsettings command-line utility. Disabling hot corner using dconf Editor

To disable the hot corner functionality using the dconf Editor application, follow this procedure.


  • The dconf Editor application is installed on the system:

    # yum install dconf-editor


  1. Open the dconf Editor application.
  2. Choose the menu.
  3. Find the option.

    This option is by default set to.

    Default settings of enable-hot-corners

    dconf enable hot corners 1

  4. Set to.

    You Auslogics Anti-Malware 2020 Crack With Serial Key Free Download 2020 do this either by:

    • Setting to in the same window.
    • Clicking the line withand proceeding to a new window.

      In the new window, you can switch the hot corner feature off.

      Switching the hot corner functionality off

      dconf enable hot corners 2

Additional resources Disabling hot corner using gsettings

To disable the hot corner functionality using the gsettings command-line utility, follow this procedure.


  • Disable the hot corner feature:

    $ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface enable-hot-corners false

Verification steps

  • Optionally, verify that the hot corner feature is disabled:

    $ gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.interface enable-hot-corners false

1.5.2. Disabling the hot corner functionality for all users

With the GNOME Shell extension called No topleft hot corner provided by the package, you can disable the hot corner feature system-wide.


  • The package is installed on the system:

    # yum install gnome-shell-extension-no-hot-corner

1.6. Configuring sound in GNOME

You can configure sound volume and other sound options in GNOME.

1.6.1. Sound configuration tools in GNOME

In RHEL 8, the PulseAudio sound server handles sound output and input. PulseAudio lets programs output the audio using the daemon.

To configure sound, you can use one of the following graphical applications in GNOME:

System menu

System menu is located in the top-right screen corner. It enables you only to set the intensity of the sound output or sound input through the sound bar. The sound bar for input sound is available only if you are running an application that is using an internal microphone (built-in audio), such as some teleconference tools.

system menu sound new


Tweaks enables you to configure only volume over-amplification.

tweaks sound

GNOME Control Center
GNOME Control Center provides more options to configure sound.

Additional resources

  • For more information on PulseAudio, see the man page.

1.6.2. Accessing sound configuration in GNOME Control Center

This procedure opens the sound configuration screen in the GNOME Control Center application.


  1. Launch GNOME Control Center.

    You can use one of the approaches described in Section 1.3, “Launching applications in GNOME”. Alternatively, you can also launch it from the System menu by clicking on its icon.

    system menu gcc new

  2. In GNOME Control Center, choose from the left vertical bar.

1.6.3. Sound options in GNOME Control Center

Through the GNOME Control Center menu, you can configure the following sound options:

Output and Input

The Output and Input menus show only the built-in audio devices unless you connect any external device that can handle sound.

The Output menu enables you to select the required profile from available analog or digital profiles that Stardock WindowBlinds 10.87 Crack Free Download displayed depending on available output devices.

Sound Effects
The Sound Effects menu sets the volume and theme of system audio alerts.
The Applications menu shows all currently running applications that can process sound, and allows you to amplify or lower the sound of a particular application.

The Output tab on the sound configuration screen

gcc sound

1.7. Handling graphics and photos

GNOME Shell provides multiple tools to handle graphics and photography.

You can check the available tools under the menu in GNOME Software:

  1. Open the GNOME software.

    gnome software1

  2. Go to. gnome software graphics and photo

The available tools include:

  • For accessing, organizing and sharing your photos.

  • For creating images and editing photographs.

  • For creating and editing scalable vector graphics images.

  • For scanning images with a scanner.

  • For create and editing drawings, flow charts, and logos.

In GNOME, you can set up printing using the GNOME Control Center GUI.

1.8.1. Starting GNOME control center for setting up printing


  1. Use one of the approaches described in Section 1.3, “Launching applications in GNOME” to start the GNOME Control Center GUI.

    Moreover, you can also start the GNOME Control center from the system menu in the top right corner by clicking on the "Settings" icon.

  2. When the GNOME Control center GUI appears, go to:

Figure 1.1. GNOME Control center configuration tool

1.8.2. Adding a new printer in GNOME Control Center

This section describes how to add a new printer using the GNOME Control Center GUI.


To be able to add a new printer using the GNOME Control Center GUI, you must click onwhich appears on the right side of the top bar, and authenticate as one of the following users:

  • Superuser
  • Any user with the administrative access provided by (users listed within )
  • Any user belonging to the group in


  1. Open the Add Printer dialog.

  2. Select one of the available printers (including also network printers), or enter printer IP address or the hostname of a printer server.

1.8.3. Configuring a printer in GNOME Control Center

This section describes how to configure a new printer, and how to maintain a configuration of a printer using the GNOME Control Center GUI.


  • Click the "settings" button on the right to display a settings menu for the selected printer:

Displaying and modifying printer’s details


  • Click to display and modify selected printer’s settings:

With this menu you can:

  • GNOME Control Center communicates with PackageKit that searches for a suitable driver suitable in available repositories.

  • This option enables you to select a suitable driver from databases that have already been installed on the system.

  • This option enables you to select from a list of available postscript printer description (PPD) files that can be used as a driver for your printer.

Setting the default printer


  • Click to set the selected printer as the default printer:

Removing a printer


  • Click to remove the selected printer:

1.8.4. Printing a test page in GNOME Control Center

This section describes how to print a test page to make sure that the printer functions properly.

You might want to print a test page if one of the below prerequisites is met.


  • A printer has been set up.
  • A printer configuration has been changed.


  1. Click the "settings" button on the right to display a settings menu for the selected printer:

  2. Click →

1.8.5. Setting print options using GNOME Control Center

This section describes how to set print options using the GNOME Control Center GUI.


  1. Click the "settings" button on the right to display a settings menu for the selected printer:

  2. Click

1.9. Sharing media between applications

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 includes the PipeWire media server, which ensures access to multimedia devices and media sharing between applications.

When running a remote desktop session on GNOME Shell on Wayland, PipeWire and the VNC server is used. The functionality of remote desktop session is provided by the and packages.

On X.Org, just VNC is needed to run a remote desktop session. This functionality on X.Org is provided by the package.

PipeWire is used also with teleconference tools such as BlueJeans when running on GNOME Shell on Wayland. In such case, the is activated automatically when you start sharing your screen within the teleconference tool.

To check the status of therun:

~]$ systemctl --user status pipewire

1.10. Customizing GNOME Shell environment with the Tweaks tool

You can customize the GNOME Shell environment for a particular user by using the Tweaks tool.

  1. Open Tweaks.
  2. To choose the required item that you want to customize, use the vertical menu on the left. For example you can choose the applications to start automatically when you log in by using the Startup Applications menu, or you can customize your top bar appearance by using the Top Bar menu.

The Tweaks tool

tweaks tool

Customizing startup applications in Tweaks

startup applications

Customizing the appearance of your top bar in Tweaks

tweaks top bar

You can switch between several user interfaces in GNOME. Additionally, GNOME can run on several different graphics back ends.

2.1. GNOME environments, back ends, and display protocols

GNOME 3 provides two user environments:

  • GNOME Standard
  • GNOME Classic

Both environments can use two different protocols as their graphical back ends:

  • The X11 protocol, which uses X.Org as the display server.
  • The Wayland protocol, which uses GNOME Shell as the Wayland compositor and display server.

    This solution of display server is further referred as GNOME Shell on Wayland.

The default combination in RHEL 8 is GNOME Standard environment using GNOME Shell on Wayland as the display server. However, due to certain Wayland limitations, you might want to switch the graphics protocol stack to X11. You may also want to switch from GNOME Standard to GNOME Classic.

Additional resources

GNOME Standard user interface includes these major components:

Top bar
The horizontal bar at the top of the screen provides access to some of the basic functions of GNOME Standard, such as the Activities Overview, clock and calendar, system status icons, and the system menu.
System menu

The system menu is located in the top right corner, and enables you:

  • Updating settings
  • Controlling the sound bar
  • Finding information about your Wi-Fi connection
  • Switching user
  • Logging out
  • Turning off the computer
Activities Overview

The Activities Overview features windows and applications views that let the user run applications and windows and switch between them.

The search entry at the top allows for searching various items available on the desktop, including applications, documents, files, and configuration tools.

The vertical bar on the left side contains a list of favorite and running applications. You can add or remove applications from the default list of favorites according to your needs.

The workspace list displayed on the right side allows the user to switch between multiple workspaces, or move applications and windows from one workspace to another.

Message tray
The message tray provides access to pending notifications. The message tray shows when the user presses Super+M.

The GNOME 3 Standard Desktop

gnome standard new

GNOME Classic represents a mode for users who prefer a more traditional desktop experience that is similar to GNOME 2 environment used with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. It is based on GNOME 3 technologies, and at the same time it includes multiple features similar to GNOME 2.

GNOME Classic user interface consists of these major components:

Applications and Places

The Applications menu is displayed at the top left of the screen. It gives the user access to applications organized into categories. If you enable window overview, you can also open the Activities Overview from that menu.

The Places menu is displayed next to the Applications menu on the top bar. It gives the user quick access to important folders, for example Downloads or Pictures.


The taskbar is displayed at the bottom of the screen, and features:

  • A window list
  • A notification icon displayed next to the window list
  • A short identifier for the current workspace and total number of available workspaces displayed next to the notification icon
Four available workspaces
In GNOME Classic, the number of workspaces available to the user is by default linux ftp client - Crack Key For U to 4.
Minimize and maximize buttons
Window titlebars in GNOME Classic feature the minimize and maximize buttons that let the user quickly minimize the windows to the window list, or maximize them to take up all of the space on the desktop.
A traditional Super+Tab window switcher
In GNOME Classic, windows in the Super+Tab window switcher are not grouped by application.
System menu

The system menu is located in the top right corner, and enables the following actions:

  • Updating settings
  • Controlling the sound bar
  • Finding information about your Wi-Fi connection
  • Switching user
  • Logging out
  • Turning off the computer

The GNOME 3 Classic desktop with the Rhythmbox application and the Favorites submenu of the Applications menu

gnome classic new

In GNOME Classic, the overview of windows that are open is not available by default. You can see the list of all open windows in the taskbar at the bottom of the screen. However, you can enable the windows overview similar to what is by default available in GNOME Standard by changing the default settings of the GNOME Classic environment as described in Section 2.4, “Enabling window overview in GNOME Classic”.

2.4. Enabling window overview in GNOME Classic

In GNOME Classic, the overview of open windows is not available by default. This procedure enables the window overview for all users on the system.

Enabling the window overview by this procedure is not a permanent change. Each update of the package overwrites the configuration file to the default settings, which disable the window overview.

To keep the window overview enabled, apply the procedure after each update of.


  1. Open the file as the user.
  2. Find the following line in the file:

    "hasOverview": false
  3. Change the line to the following:

    "hasOverview": true
  4. Save changes, and close the file.
  5. Restart the user session.

Verification steps

  1. bitdefender total security 2020 crack + activation code lifetime - Free Activators your GNOME Classic session, open multiple windows.
  2. Press the Super key to open the window overview.
  3. In the overview, check that:

    • The Dash (the vertical panel on the left side of the screen) is displayed.
    • The bottom panel is not displayed.
    • The workspace switcher is displayed on the right side of the screen.

      Window overview with "hasOverview": true

      has overview true

    With the default settings (), the overview has the following features:

    • The Dash is not displayed.
    • The bottom panel is displayed. It includes the Window picker button in its left part and the workspace switcher in its right part.

      Window overview with "hasOverview": false

      has overview false

2.5. Graphics back ends in RHEL 8

In RHEL 8, you can choose between two protocols to build a graphical user interface:

The X11 protocol uses X.Org as the display server. Displaying graphics based on this protocol works the same way as in RHEL 7, where this was the only option.
The Wayland protocol on RHEL 8 uses GNOME Shell as its compositor and display server, which is further referred as GNOME Shell on Wayland. Displaying graphics based on the Wayland protocol has some differences and limitation compared to X11.

New installations of RHEL 8 automatically select GNOME Shell on Wayland. However, you can switch to X.Org, or select the required combination of GNOME environment and display server as described in Section 2.8, “Selecting GNOME environment and display protocol”.

Note that there are also a few environments where X.Org is preferred over GNOME Shell on Wayland, such as:

  • Cirrus graphics used in a VM environment
  • Matrox graphics
  • Aspeed graphics
  • QXL graphics used in a VM environment
  • Nvidia graphics when used with the proprietary driver

The Nvidia graphics by default usewhich is an open source driver. is supported on Wayland, hence you can use Nvidia graphics with on GNOME Shell on Wayland without any limitations. However, using Nvidia graphics with proprietary Nvidia binary drivers is not supported on GNOME Shell on Wayland. In this case, you need to switch to X.Org as described in Section 2.8, “Selecting GNOME environment and display protocol”.

Additional resources

  • You can find the current list of environments for which Wayland is not available in the file.
  • For additional information on the Wayland project, see Wayland documentation.

2.6. Key differences between the Wayland and X11 protocol

X11 applications

Client applications need to be ported to the Wayland protocol or use a graphical toolkit that has a Wayland backend, such as GTK, to be able to work natively with the compositor and display server based on Wayland.

Legacy X11 applications that cannot be ported to Wayland automatically use Xwayland as a proxy between the X11 legacy clients and the Wayland compositor. Xwayland functions both as an X11 server and a Wayland client. The role of Xwayland is to translate the X11 protocol into the Wayland protocol and reversely, so that X11 legacy applications can work with the display server based on Wayland.

On GNOME Shell on Wayland, Xwayland is started automatically at startup, which ensures that most X11 legacy applications work as expected when using GNOME Shell on Wayland. However, the X11 and Wayland protocols are different, and hence some clients relying on X11-specific features may behave differently under Xwayland. For such specific clients, you can switch to the X.Org display server as described in Section 2.8, “Selecting GNOME environment and display protocol”.


Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 uses a new unified input stack,which manages all common device types, such as mice, touchpads, touchscreens, tablets, trackballs and pointing sticks. This unified stack is used both by the X.Org and by the GNOME Shell on Wayland compositor.

GNOME Shell on Wayland uses directly for all devices, and no switchable driver support is available. Under X.Org, is implemented as the X.Org driver, and driver support is outlined below.

Mice, touchscreens, trackballs, pointing sticks
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 uses the X.Org driver for these devices. The driver, which was used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, is available as daemon tools pro 8.1 crack - Crack Key For U where required.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 uses the X.Org driver for touchpads. The driver, which was used for touchpads in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, is no longer available.
Graphics tablets
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 continues using the X.Org driver, which was used for tablet devices in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. However, the X.Org driver is available where required.
Other input devices
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 used the X.Org driver for other input devices that are not included in the above categories. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 uses the X.Org driver by default but can fall back to the X.Org driver if a device is incompatible with.


GNOME Shell on Wayland supports new touchpad and touchscreen gestures. These gestures include:

  • Switching workspaces by dragging up or down with four fingers.
  • Opening the Activities overview by bringing three fingers closer together.

2.7. Current Wayland limitations

Nvidia drivers

Proprietary Nvidia binary drivers are not supported with GNOME Shell on Wayland. To avoid any complications while using the Nvidia GPU, GNOME Shell automatically falls back to X.Org, which means that the login screen does not provide any option based on the Wayland protocol.

The driver is still supported and is the default driver for Nvidia graphics.

Remote desktop

With GNOME Shell on Wayland, VNC support is provided by the package. Remote access using VNC via currently requires an already logged in session, and only the primary monitor is accessible. Screen sharing with GNOME Shell on Wayland is possible using the PipeWire media server. For more details on the PipeWire media server, see PipeWire project.

For more advanced VNC usage, you need to switch to, where traditional VNC tools are available. For more information, see Section 2.8, “Selecting GNOME environment and display protocol”.

X Display Manager

The X Display Manager Control Protocol (XDMCP) is not supported with GNOME Shell on Wayland. avg antivirus free download for windows 10 - Crack Key For U Hence, it is not possible to use the X display manager to start a session on the X.Org display server from the same or another computer.

Additional limitations

The following additional limitations related to the Wayland protocol should be noted:

  • X.Org screen manipulation utilities are not available.
  • The utility is not supported because Wayland handles layout, rotations, and resolutions differently.
  • GNOME Shell cannot be restarted using the Alt+F2r shortcut.
  • Due to stability issues, using instead of Wayland is recommended in virtual environments. The graphics based on the Wayland protocol are not available for virtual machines that use the driver.
  • Wayland does not support the custom or niche input devices that cannot be handled by the driver.

Additional resources

  • You can find the current list of environments for which Wayland-based graphics are unavailable in the file.

2.8. Selecting GNOME environment and display protocol

The default desktop environment for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 is GNOME Standard with GNOME Shell on Wayland as the display server. However, due to certain limitations of Wayland, you might want to switch the graphics protocol stack. You might also want to switch from GNOME Standard to GNOME Classic.


  1. From the login screen (GDM), click the cogwheel next to the Sign In button.

    You cannot access this option from the lock screen. The login screen appears when you first start Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 or when you log out of your current session.

    gnome environments new

  2. From the drop-down menu that appears, select the option that you prefer.

    Note that in the menu that appears on the login screen, the X.Org display server is marked as X11 display server.

The change of GNOME environment and graphics protocol stack resulting from the above procedure is persistent across user logouts, and also when powering off or rebooting the computer.

This section describes various approaches that you can use to install a new application in GNOME 3.


  • You have administrator permissions on the system.

3.1. The GNOME Software application

GNOME Software is a utility that enables you to install and update applications and Linux ftp client - Crack Key For U Shell extensions through a graphical environment.

GNOME Software is based on the PackageKit technology, which serves as its back end. GNOME Software offers mainly the desktop applications, which are the applications that include the file. The available applications are grouped into multiple categories according to their purpose.

3.2. Installing an application using GNOME Software

This procedure installs a graphical application using the GNOME Software installer.


  1. Launch the GNOME Software application.
  2. Find the application to be installed in the available categories:

    • Audio & Video
    • Communication & News
    • Productivity
    • Graphics & Photography
    • Add-ons

      Add-ons include for example GNOME Shell extensions, codecs, or fonts.

    • Developer Tools
    • Utilities

    gnome software new

  3. Click the selected application.

    gnome software install photos1 new

  4. Click the Install button.

    gnome software install photos2 new

3.3. Installing an application to open a file type

This procedure installs an application that can open a given file type.


  1. Try opening a file that is associated with an application that is currently not installed on your system.
  2. GNOME automatically identifies the suitable application that can open the file, and offers to download the application.

3.4. Installing an RPM package in GNOME

hma vpn license key for android 2020 - Activators Patch paragraph is the procedure module introduction: a short description of the procedure.


  1. Download the required RPM package.
  2. In the Files application, open the directory that stores the downloaded RPM package.

    By default, downloaded files are stored in the directory.

  3. Double-click the icon of the RPM package to install it.

3.5. Installing an application from the application search in GNOME

This procedure installs a graphical application that you find in the GNOME application search.


  1. Open the Activities Overview screen.
  2. Start typing the name of the required application in the search entry.

    install gimp 1 new

    GNOME automatically finds the application in a repository, and displays the application’s icon.

  3. Click the application’s icon to open GNOME Software.

    install gimp 2

  4. Click the icon of the application again.

    install gimp 3

  5. Click Install to finish the installation in GNOME Software.

3.6. Additional resources

You must register your system in order to get software updates for your system.

This section explains how you can register your system using GNOME.


  • A valid account with Red Hat customer portal

    See the Create a Red Hat Login page for new user registration.

  • Activation Key or keys, if you are registering the system with activation key
  • A registration server, if you are registering system using the registration server

4.1. Registering a system using Red Hat account on GNOME

Follow the steps in this procedure to enroll your system with your Red Hat account.



  1. Go to the system menu, which is accessible from the top-right screen corner and click the Settings icon.
  2. In the → section, click Register.
  3. Select Registration Server.
  4. If you are not using the Red Hat server, enter the server address in the URL field.
  5. In the Registration Type menu, select Red Hat Account.
  6. Under Registration Details:

    • linux ftp client - Crack Key For U your Red hat account user name in the Login field,
    • Enter your Red hat account password in the Password field.
    • Enter the name of your organization in the Organization field.
  7. Click Register.

4.2. Registering a system using an activation key on GNOME

Follow the steps in this procedure to register your system with an activation key. You can get the activation key from your organization administrator.


  • Activation key or keys.

    See the Activation Keys page for creating new activation keys.


  1. Go to the system menu, which is accessible from the top-right screen corner and click the Settings icon.
  2. In the → section, click Register.
  3. Select Registration Server.
  4. Enter URL to the customized server, if you are not using the Red Hat server.
  5. In the Registration Type menu, select Activation Keys.
  6. Under Registration Details:

    • Enter Activation Keys.

      Separate multiple keys by a comma (,).

    • Enter the name or ID of your organization in the Organization field.
  7. Click Register

4.3. Unregistering the system using GNOME

Follow the steps in this procedure to unregister your system. After unregistering, your system no longer receives software updates.


  1. Go to the system menu, which is accessible from the top-right screen corner and click the Settings icon.
  2. In the → section, click Details.

    The Registration Details screen appears.

  3. Click Unregister.

    A warning appears about the impact of unregistering the system.

  4. Click Unregister.

Additional resources

You can connect to the desktop on a RHEL server from a remote client.

5.1. Remote desktop access options

RHEL provides several options for remotely connecting to the desktop. Each option fits a different use case:

Single-user access using GNOME tools

This method enables remote access on the client and the server using graphical GNOME applications. It configures a Virtual Network Computing (VNC) session so that only a single user can connect to the desktop on the server at a given time.

Depending on the session type, this method uses different components to implement screen sharing:

  • In an X11 session, it uses the component.
  • In a Wayland session, it uses the component.

    This method always uses display number 0. As a consequence, the VNC session always connects to the user who is logged into the server system.

    The VNC client application must support connections. For example, you can use the Remote Desktop Viewer () application on Linux systems. Before you can connect from Microsoft Windows clients, such as RealVNC, you must disable the VNC encryption on the server.

Multi-user access using command-line tools

This method configures a VNC session so that multiple remote clients can connect to the server in parallel. You must first enable the VNC access on the client and the server using command-line tools.

Any VNC client application can connect to a server configured using this method.

Accessing a single application using X11 forwarding over SSH

This method executes an SSH command on the client that launches an individual graphical on the server. The application window opens on the client.

This method is useful when you do not require a full remote desktop session.

5.2. Remotely accessing the desktop as a single user

You can remotely connect to the desktop on a RHEL server using graphical GNOME applications. Only a single user can connect to the desktop on the server at a given time.

5.2.1. Enabling desktop sharing on the server using GNOME

This procedure configures a RHEL server to enable a remote desktop connection from a single client.


  1. Configure a firewall rule to enable VNC access to the server:

    # firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=vnc-server
  2. Reload firewall rules:

    # firewall-cmd --reload
  3. Open Settings in GNOME.
  4. Navigate to the Sharing menu:

    screen sharing 0

  5. Click Screen Sharing.

    The screen sharing configuration opens:

    screen sharing 1 off

  6. Click the switch button in the window header to enable screen sharing:

    screen sharing 2 on highlight

  7. Select the Allow connections to control the screen check box.
  8. Under Access Options, select the Require a password option.
  9. Set a password in the Password

sed 's/,v//g'


Minimizing vulnerabilities in your Secure Shell (SSH) protocol is key to ensuring the security of your Linux environment.

In this article, we cover the most common Linux SSH security measures you can take to make your servers more secure. By changing the default SSH port, using key pairs, and following the other recommended best practices, you can significantly improve the overall security of your system.

Five tips and best practices on how to improve SSH security

What is SSH?

The Secure Shell (SSH) protocol enables cryptographically protected remote system administration and file transfers over insecure networks. Using multiple encryption methods, SSH secures the connection between a client and a server safeguarding the users’ commands, authentication, and output against unauthorized access and attacks.

The SSH protocol is now widely used in data centers and by almost every major enterprise running on any of the UNIX variants.

When it comes to security measures, it is essential to combine them, apply them in layers, and not pick just one and rely on only that solution.

To learn more about SSH connections, visit our article about how SSH works.

1. Change the Default SSH Port

Using a non-standard port for SSH connection helps avoid automated attacks on your server. It also helps reduce the chances of it appearing on a hacker’s radar and makes it a less obvious target.

Note: The majority of hackers who are looking for OpenSSH servers will aim at the default SSH port 22.

In that case, the scripts they are using will look for IP addresses only on port 22. If your server falls into that group, every such automated attack will make an impact on your log files. Consequently, the load on your server may increase substantially since many SSH server exploits are running around the clock knocking on every server’s door.

It is important to note that changing the default SSH port does not improve the security of your server. However, it does help in keeping away automated attacks.

How to Change the Port Number

Before you begin, you need to decide which port you will use instead of the default port 22. Before you make a decision, you should consider a few things:


To change the port on your Linux server, follow these steps:

  1. Connect to the server via SSH as you usually would.
  2. Switch to the root user using the su command, which will prompt you to enter the server password.
  3. Use a text editor of your choice to edit the sshd configuration file located in the directory. If you have never used a text editor within the terminal, it is recommended to use Nano. Otherwise, use vi or vim since they are the most commonly used editors today. We advise you to back up the original file before you make any changes.
  4. Run this command to edit the configuration file:
  1. In the output of the sshd_config file locate the line which says “.”
editing the sshd config file
  1. Change the port number to the value of your choice. Make sure there is no “” at the beginning of the line.
  2. Exit the editor and confirm that you want to save the changes.
  3. For the changes to take effect, restart the sshd service with this command:
  1. Verify that the SSH is listening on the port you specified by connecting to it.

Note that now you will need to specify the port when connecting since your client will always use the default SSH port unless told otherwise.


While the procedure for changing the default SSH port does not increase the level of security itself, it takes you off the radar of the most common scans. One easy way to test this is to let your server run for a few days with sshd listening on the default port and then change it to a non-standard one. Compare the number of failed logins on your server, and you will see it decrease substantially.

By using a non-standard port for SSH:

  • You avoid being seen by random scans.
  • It is more difficult to find your server. Most of the attacks will scan the default port or some variants of it, but will move on once the connection is refused.
  • SSH daemon can take a break since it will not get connection requests from scripted attacks. Server load is reduced, and the log file stays clean saving you time in reviewing it.
  • You do not receive as many alerts for failed logins. If you are using a non-standard port and someone still tries to access your server, it probably means that your server is specifically being targeted and that the alarm is not coming from a scripted attack.
  • You are less exposed to being hacked due to the bugs in sshd or weak private keys.
  • Most hackers will be repelled if they see that you are not using the default port. It will be a sign that the server is properly protected and that there are probably other security measures taken as well, making your server an linux ftp client - Crack Key For U target.


There are some precautions to keep in mind before you decide to change the default port for SSH. The disadvantages of running a non-standard port can mean that:

  • Anybody who should be able to connect to your server will need to be informed of the change and will have to start using the new port.
  • If you are using outsourced monitoring for your server, you also need to make them aware of the change. Otherwise, they may treat this as a potential threat which may lead to server downtime.
  • The firewall rules related to the SSH service have to be inspected and modified according to the changes you make.

Some of these disadvantages probably will not apply to your use case but should be taken into consideration. The benefits of changing the port outweigh the drawbacks and prove to be a good additional layer of security for your server.

2. Enhance Linux SSH Security Using Key Pairs

One of the most secure methods to authenticate clients to servers is by using SSH key pairs. Strong passwords may be sufficient to keep your server safe, but persistent brute force attacks can still crack them. This is why you need additional SSH hardening with key pairs.

SSH keys are resilient to such attacks and are virtually impossible to decrypt. An SSH key pair consists of hma pro vpn license key generator - Activators Patch long series of characters, a private key which is kept secret, and a public key which can be safely shared. Their purpose is similar to passwords, and they allow you to automatically establish an SSH session without the need to type in a password.

How to Generate a Key Pair

To set up SSH keys, you will need to generate a key pair on the client computer which will be used to connect to the server. To do so:

  1. Start the terminal and run the SSH keygen utility, available with the standard OpenSSH tool.
  1. You will get the message “Generating public/private RSA key pair.” If you want to save the key to the default location, press when prompted. The key will be saved in the home user’s directory, in the directory. To change the location, just type in the new path. The recommendation is to stick with the default location, so you do not have to make any changes to your SSH client. The private, or the identification key, will be saved as and the corresponding public key as .
  2. Optionally, you can insert a passphrase. If you do not wish to use one, press to continue. The passphrase provides an additional layer of security by encrypting the private key on the local machine. To crack the passphrase, a hacker will need to have access to the system first, since the private key is not exposed on the network. Even then, it will take time to succeed, allowing you to change the used key before the hacker gains access to other servers. The downside is that you will have to enter it every time you try to connect using that key.

The process of generating a key pair is complete.

The final screen will look similar to this:

Note: You can make the authentication/authorization even more secure by creating larger 4096-bit keys instead of the default 2048 bits. To do so, append to the command. It will look like this:

ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096

Copying a Public Key

To use the key pair you’ve created on your machine for SSH authentication, you need to place the public key on the desired server. The simplest way to do so is to use the tool available with OpenSSH:

The procedure is easy:

  1. Type in .
  2. If you are connecting for the first time to this host, you will get an authenticity message. Type to continue.
  3. Input your password when asked, and the tool will copy the contents of  key to the file under the home directory on the server.

Note: No characters will be visible while you are typing the password due to security reasons.

  1. You will get a message:
copying public key ssh

Your public key has been placed on the remote server, and now you can log into it without entering the account’s password.

  1. To test if the authentication with the keys is working, connect to your server with. If successful, you will be automatically logged in. In case you had previously set up a passphrase, you will need to enter it first before you are granted access to the server.

How Keys Work

Essentially, a public key is not a key. It behaves like a padlock that you can put on an SSH account on another machine. When you run the ‘ssh-keygen’ utility, you generate both the padlock and the key that opens it, and respectively.

You can make as many copies of the padlock as necessary, distribute them to any server you like, and only you will have the right key to unlock them all. This is why it is important to keep the private key safe because it unlocks all the copies of the padlocks you’ve handed out.

It does not matter where you put your public key as long as the master key does not get compromised. Since nobody else possesses the private key, this method for authorization and authentication is probably the safest out there and highly recommended.

3. Disable Server SSH Root Login

Linux server distributions have outside root access enabled by default. This can be a severe security threat since hackers can try to crack the password with brute force attacks. It is recommended to disable root login and use a regular account and a  command to switch to the root user.

Before you disable the root login, make sure that you have added an account that can gain root access. To do so, follow the steps below:

  1. Use Linux ftp client - Crack Key For U to log into the server as root.

2. Use a text editor to open the main configuration file. This time, we will use the vi editor.

3. Find the line that says “ and change to. You may need to scroll down a few lines to find it.

4. It is important to add the user account you will use to log in. Just add another line with the username in question:

5. Save the changes you made and then exit the text editor.

6. Restart the SSH service but do not close the root session yet. For Ubuntu and Debian use and for Fedora/CentOS use the  command.

Open a new terminal window and verify that you can now log in as the user you added. Once you confirm it works, exit the active root session.

4. Disable Password-Based Logins on Your Server

If you are using SSH keys for SSH authentication, you can disable the server password authentication altogether. This is another way to keep your server safe from brute-force attacks and attempts to crack your password. Before you proceed, double-check if SSH key-based authentication is working for the root account on the server or for an account with the sudo access.

When you are ready, complete these steps:

  1. Use SSH keys to log into the server as root or with sudo privileges.

2. Use a text editor to open the sshd_config file. We will use vi:

3. Look for the line that says and change to. Make sure to uncomment the line if the is present.

4. Save the changes you’ve made and then exit the text editor.

5. Restart the SSH service to apply the changes. For Ubuntu/Debian use and for Fedora/CentOS use the command.

Congratulations, you have successfully disabled the option to log in through SSH using account passwords. SSH Daemon will simply ignore any authentication requests which do not include private/public key pairs.

5. Restrict SSH Access Using iptables

Iptables is a Linux utility used for configuring firewall rules and monitoring/filtering incoming and outgoing traffic to your server. It is included by default with most Linux distributions.

With iptables, you can define rules that limit or permit traffic for different kinds of services by IP address, port or network protocol and thus substantially improve the security of your server. In our case, we will set firewall rules to restrict the incoming SSH traffic for everyone but one IP address or subnet.

This way, blocking port 22 will not only stop unauthorized access to your servers but can also stop or prevent DDoS attacks.

While taking this step, you should make sure you do not lock yourself out by completely linux ftp client - Crack Key For U SSH traffic.You will need to use only a few commands to allow a specific IP address or subnet for linux ftp client - Crack Key For U SSH connections.

Note: Commands are case sensitive.

This rule will whitelist the IP address that you’ve typed in. Please replace the example IP in the command with your IP. You can also use a subnet, for example,

You need to save the rules, so you do not lose them after reboot:

If you want to view the list of all iptables rules, you can use the command. To include more details such as packet, byte and target information, append to the command above. Add to all of it and the output will be displayed in numeric format.

In case you want to reset all rules and start clean, use the flush command . This rank tracker pricing - Free Activators clear the iptables configuration which is useful if you are unsure if everything is set up as you want it.

Iptables parameters and Options Definitions

Here are some explanations for iptables parameters, options, and values used in the examples above, as well as a few not mentioned before.

ACCEPTAllows the packets to pass through
DROPBlocks the packets
RETURNTells to skip the current chain and resume at the next rule in the previous (calling) chain

-ccounters allows setting the packet and byte counters of a specific rule
-ddestination – can be an address, name of a host or address, etc.
-ffragment – applies the rule to the second and the fragments that follow it
-ggoto chain – states that the action will continue in a user-specified chain
-iin-interface – states the name of the interface from where packets come
-jjump – specifies the action if a packet matches the rule
-oout-interface – the name of the interface of an outgoing package
-pprotocol – any available protocol such as SSH, TCP, UDP, and FTP
-ssource – can be an address, name of a host or address, etc.

INPUTControls the incoming packets
FORWARDSForwards the packets coming to your server but destined for somewhere else
OUTPUTFilters packets going out of your server

-Aappend adds one (or more) rules of the selected chain
-Ccheck – checks for a rule that matches the criteria in the selected chain
-Ddelete – deletes only one rule from the selected chain
-Fflush – deletes all defined iptables rules
-Iinsert – insert a rule into the selected chain
-Llist – displays the rules of the selected chain
-nnumeric – shows the IP address/hostname and return value in a numeric format
-Nnew-chain <name> – creates a new user-defined chain
-vverbose – used in the combination with -L to provide additional information
-Xdelete-chain <name> – deletes the user-defined chain

Conclusion, SSH Security, and Hardening Best Practices

Whether you are building a new server or a virtual machine, it is good practice to implement multiple security layers within your environment. Businesses are usually keen on setting up their infrastructure as soon as possible, but necessary security measures have to be applied right from the start.

If you employ the Linux SSH security methods listed above, you should be able to avoid common security threats in the cloud.

Make it hard for the hackers to penetrate your server(s) and restrict any damage. Make sure you implement as many of these best practices as possible before making your server available on the network.

Don’t forget to check out our regularly-updated list of Best Cybersecurity Blogs you should be following to keep yourself on top of all the latest trends.

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Popular tools for brute-force attacks [updated for 2020]

The brute force attack is still one of the most popular password-cracking methods. Nevertheless, it is not just for password cracking. Brute force attacks can also be used to discover hidden pages and content in a web application. This attack is basically “a hit and try” until you succeed. This attack sometimes takes longer, but its success rate is higher. 

In this article, I will try to explain brute force attacks and popular tools used in different scenarios for performing brute force attacks to get desired results.

What is a brute force attack?

A brute force attack when an attacker uses a set of predefined values to attack a target and analyze the response until he succeeds. Success depends on the set of predefined values. If it is larger, it will take more time, but there is a better probability of success. 

The most common and easiest to understand example of the brute force attack is the dictionary attack to crack passwords. In this, the attacker uses a password dictionary that contains millions of words that can be used as a password. The attacker tries these passwords one by one for authentication. If this dictionary contains the correct password, the attacker will succeed.

In a traditional brute force attack, the attacker just tries the combination of letters and numbers to generate a password sequentially. However, this traditional technique will take longer when the password is long enough. These attacks can take several minutes to several hours or several years, depending on the system used and length of password.

To prevent password cracking from brute force attacks, one should always use long and complex passwords. This makes it hard for attackers to guess the password, and brute force attacks will take too much time. Account lockout is another way to prevent the attacker from performing brute force attacks on web applications. However, for offline software, things are not as easy to secure.

Similarly, for discovering hidden pages, the attacker tries to guess the name of the page, sends requests and sees the response. If the page does not exist, it will show a 404 response; on a success, the response will be 200. In this way, it can find hidden pages on any website.

Brute force is also used to crack the hash and guess a password from a given hash. In this, the hash is generated from random passwords and then this hash is matched with a target hash until the attacker finds the correct one. Therefore, the higher the type of encryption (64-bit, 128-bit or 256-bit encryption) used to encrypt the password, the longer it can take to break.

Reverse brute force attack

A reverse brute force attack is another term that is associated with password cracking. It takes a reverse approach in password cracking. In this, the attacker tries one password against multiple usernames. Imagine if you know a password but do not have any idea of the usernames. In this case, you can try the same password and guess the different usernames until you find the working combination.

Now, you know that a brute-forcing attack is mainly used for password cracking. You can use it in any software, any website or any protocol which does not block requests after a few invalid trials. In this post, I am going to add a few brute force password-cracking tools for different protocols.

Popular tools for brute force attacks


I am sure you already know about the Aircrack-ng tool. This is a popular brute force wifi password cracking tool available for free. I also mentioned this tool in our older post on most popular password-cracking tools. This tool comes with WEP/WPA/WPA2-PSK cracker and analysis tools to perform attacks on Wi-Fi 802.11. Aircrack-ng can be used for any NIC which supports raw monitoring mode.

It basically performs dictionary attacks against a wireless network to guess the password. As you already know, the success of the attack depends on the dictionary of passwords. The better and more effective the password dictionary is, the more likely it is that it will crack the password.

It is available for Windows and Linux platforms. It has also been ported to run on iOS and Android platforms. You can try it on given platforms to see how this tool can be used for brute force wifi password cracking.

Download Aircrack-ng here.

John the Ripper

John the Ripper is another awesome tool that does not need any introduction. It has been a favorite choice for performing brute force attacks for a long time. This free password-cracking software was initially developed for Unix systems. Later, developers released it for various other platforms. Now, it supports fifteen different platforms including Unix, Windows, DOS, BeOS and OpenVMS. 

You can use this either to identify weak passwords or to crack passwords for breaking authentication.

This tool is very popular and combines various password-cracking features. It can automatically detect the type of hashing used in a password. Therefore, you can also run it against encrypted password storage.

Basically, it can perform brute force attacks with all possible passwords by combining text and numbers. However, you can also use it with a dictionary of passwords to perform dictionary attacks.

Download John the Ripper here.

Rainbow Crack

Rainbow Crack is also a popular brute-forcing tool used for password cracking. It generates rainbow tables for using while performing the attack. In this way, it is different from other conventional brute-forcing tools. Rainbow tables are pre-computed. It helps in reducing the time in performing the attack.

The good thing is that there are various organizations which have already published the pre-computer rainbow tables for all internet users. To save time, you can download those rainbow tables and use them in your attacks.

This tool is still in active development. It is available for both Windows and Linux and supports all latest versions of these platforms.

Download Rainbow Crack and read more about this tool here.


L0phtCrack is known for its ability to crack Windows passwords. It uses dictionary attacks, brute force attacks, hybrid attacks and rainbow tables. The most notable features of L0phtcrack are scheduling, hash extraction from 64-bit Windows versions, multiprocessor algorithms and network monitoring and decoding. If you want to crack the password of a Windows system, you can try this tool.

Download L0phtCrack here.


Ophcrack is another brute-forcing tool specially used for cracking Windows passwords. It cracks Windows passwords by using LM hashes through rainbow tables. It disk drill activation code 2018 - Crack Key For U a free and open-source tool. 

In most cases, it can crack a Windows password in a few minutes. By default, Ophcrack comes with rainbow tables to crack passwords of less than 14 characters which contain only alphanumeric characters. Other rainbow tables are also available to download.

Ophcrack is also available as LiveCD.

Download Ophcrack here.


Hashcat claims to be the fastest CPU-based password cracking tool. It is free and comes for Linux, Windows and Mac OS platforms. Hashcat supports various hashing algorithms including LM Hashes, MD4, MD5, SHA-family, Unix Crypt formats, MySQL and Cisco PIX. It supports various attacks including brute force attacks, combinator attacks, dictionary attacks, fingerprint attacks, hybrid attacks, mask attacks, permutation attack, rule-based attacks, table-lookup attacks and toggle-case attacks.

Download Hashcat here.


DaveGrohl is a popular brute-forcing tool for Mac OS X. It supports all available versions of Mac OS X. This tool supports both dictionary attacks and incremental attacks. It also has a distributed mode that lets you perform attacks from multiple computers to attack on the same password hash. 

This tool is now open-source and you can download the source code.

Download DaveGrohl here.


Ncrack is also a popular password-cracking tool for cracking network authentications. It supports various protocols including RDP, SSH, HTTP(S), SMB, POP3(S), VNC, FTP and Telnet. It can perform different attacks including brute-forcing attacks. It supports various platforms including Linux, BSD, Windows and Mac OS X.

Download Ncrack here.

THC Hydra

THC Hydra is known for its ability to crack passwords of network authentications by performing brute force attacks. It performs dictionary attacks against more than 30 protocols including Telnet, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, SMB and more. It is available for various platforms including Linux, Windows/Cygwin, Solaris 11, FreeBSD 8.1, OpenBSD, OSX and QNX/Blackberry.

Download THC Hydra here.


These are a few popular brute-forcing tools for password cracking. There are various other tools are also available which perform brute force on different Remote Computer Manager Crack of authentication. If I just give an example of a few small tools, you will see most of the PDF-cracking and ZIP-cracking tools use the same brute force methods to perform attacks and crack passwords. There are many such tools available for free or paid.

Brute-forcing is the best password-cracking method. The success of the attack depends on various factors. However, factors that affect most are password length and combination of characters, letters and special characters. This is why when we talk about strong passwords, we usually suggest that users have long passwords with a combination of lower-case letters, capital letters, numbers and special characters. It does not make brute-forcing impossible but it does make it difficult. Therefore, it will take a longer time to reach to the password by brute-forcing. 

Almost all hash-cracking algorithms use the brute force to hit and try. This attack is best when you have offline access to data. In that case, it makes it easy to crack and takes less time.

Brute force password cracking is also very important in computer security. It is used to check the weak passwords used in the system, network or application.

The best way to prevent brute force attacks is to limit invalid logins. In this way, attacks can only hit and try passwords only for limited times.

Posted: September 24, 2020


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Pavitra Shandkhdhar is an engineering graduate and a security researcher. His area of interest is web penetration testing. He likes to find vulnerabilities in websites and playing computer games in his free time. He is currently a researcher with InfoSec Institute.


Which File Transfer Method Is Best for Your Home Network?

When you create your own file server or network-attached storage, you might be surprised how much thought you need to give to moving your files around.

To the human eye, each approach looks the same (as in invisible), but on the technical level, your computers are talking in very different ways. Which approach you take will depend on what operating systems and types of devices you intend to connect.

smadav 2021 pro free download. FTP

FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It's a standard method for moving files around between a client and a server. Your laptop, for example, is the client. Your home server is, well, the server.

FTP is versatile in that your operating system really doesn't matter. The protocol has been around since before any of them had graphical user interfaces. Your router may even come with a USB port and support transferring data to an external hard drive via FTP (which is an easy way to create a home server, albeit nowhere near as robust as setting up a dedicated machine for the job).

You can protect your data by requiring a username and password, but by default FTP will transfer your credentials unencrypted. This may be okay on your home network, but you will want something more secure when operating on a larger network or transmitting files over the internet.

That doesn't mean you need to abandon FTP. You can try FTPS, a variation that encrypts your connection.

Here's how to send and receive files from a Mac via FTP.

2. SMB

SMB stands for Server Message Block. Though it began as an IBM project, it became a means for computers running Microsoft Windows to communicate over a local network. When you create a folder using Windows Explorer and expand access to other users, you're doing so via SMB.

SMB is not limited to Windows users. You can also access these files from macOS, Linux, and other Unix-like operating systems. Apple calls its implementation SMBX, while on Linux the implementation is known as Samba. In either case, your laptop can serve as either the server or the client.

SMB is great for spreading files between machines on a local network in a cross-platform way. Users don't need any technical knowledge to start sharing folders and downloading files, aside from awareness of the network section in a file manager's sidebar.

3. AFP

AFP, or Apple Filing Protocol, is Apple's proprietary system for connecting different macOS computers. If you have a household filled with Apple products, or you run a company that uses Apple hardware, then this may be the most relevant file transfer protocol for you.

While AFP is specific to Apple devices, you can buy home media systems that support the protocol. You can also set up your own FreeNAS or OpenMediaVault box with an old PC and use AFP to share files with your iMacs, MacBooks, and iPads.

On the other hand, if you aren't working exclusively with Apple hardware, there's little reason to concern yourself with AFP. This protocol is rather specialized. Other options offer better cross-platform compatibility or communication between servers.

4. NFS

The Network File System, known as NFS, is a protocol in use on Unix and Unix-like computers (such as Linux). Its strength lies in the ability for many machines to access the same server regularly. NFS can offer faster speeds on computers that support the protocol.

One drawback of NFS is that, even if you use a Linux-based desktop, setup isn't obvious. Instructions will generally point you toward the command line, with you needing to tell your computer to mount network shares like it mounts physical hardware. As the name suggests, you're treating a shared folder on a network as though it were part of your file system.

Again, setting up NFS is not hard if you're comfortable with the command line, but the process is not something intuitive you can discover and set up from your desktop's file manager.


SSH stands for Secure Shell. It is a method of connecting to and managing a remote machine. If you want to run commands on a server, whether it lives in your basement or on a server farm thousands of miles away, you can turn to SSH to get the job done.

On its own, SSH is not a file transfer protocol. That's where SFTP comes in, otherwise known as the SSH File Transfer Protocol or Secure File Transfer Protocol. This is a way of transferring files over an encrypted connection. Despite the similarity in name, SFTP does not refer to using FTP over SSH, which is a complicated affair.

SFTP is a different method of transferring data using the same technology as SSH.

SFTP is not necessary for a home server unless you're concerned that someone has access to your Wi-Fi network and is snooping on your traffic. SFTP is a better option for transferring files from or to locations outside of your home. But that doesn't mean you must use SSH when you're moving files around remotely.

If you have an active VPN connection encrypting your web traffic, then you can use FTP or mount NFS shares knowing your data has some protection. Using SFTP in conjunction with a VPN is somewhat redundant.


DLNA is short smartftp enterprise 9.0 Digital Living Network Alliance. It's a certification standard rather than a file transfer protocol, but it's still an acronym you may need to know when setting up a home media server. If you intend to stream files to a Smart TV or video game console, you will need a server with DLNA support.

To stream content via DLNA, you don't open your file manager to share or access files. You're not accessing files via a method known as DLNA.

Instead, you need dedicated software. Plex is one of the most popular examples, with Emby being an open source alternative. Such programs take your raw files and transmit them in a format that DLNA-compatible devices understand.

You can stream music and video from a desktop, laptop, or a dedicated NAS. What matters is that you're running the necessary software on both the device that's sending and the device that's receiving.

The Best Way to Transfer Files on a Home Network

Every bit of software or code on your computer ultimately exists somewhere as a file, so it's no surprise that there are many ways to move files around. But this need not be complicated. Depending on your use-case, some protocols are easy to recommend.

  • Use Windows and want to share files with family members? SMB
  • Have an Apple household instead? AFP
  • Want to share files between two Linux-based desktops? SMB
  • Want an ongoing connection between a Linux-based desktop and server? NFS
  • linux ftp client - Crack Key For U Want something that really doesn't care what OS you prefer? FTP
  • Need security when you're away from home? SFTP
  • Stream music and videos to a TV? DLNA

Don't want to bother with a network? You can always stick to using flash drives instead. Or if you're working with large media files, you may want to go with a portable hard drive.

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About The Author
Bertel King (339 Articles Published)

Bertel is a digital minimalist who works from a laptop running elementary OS and carries around a Light Phone II. He delights in helping others decide which tech to bring into their lives. and which tech to do without.

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