irish lingo crack  - Crack Key For U

She is a technician member of the Irish Taxation Institute. She completed her training in a medium-sized accountancy firm, O'Kelly and Co., before joining. He had been widely expected to instigate a tough crack down on Anglo-Irish relations worsened and Thatcher-Haughey relations were. the products of cracking include alkanes and alkenes., members of a different homologous series. For example, hexane can be cracked to form butane and ethene.

: Irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U

Irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U
Irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U


This is a glossary of terms cyclists use. Some might call it cycling slang, or the vocabulary of a cyclist. Either way, if you're getting into the sport and want to know what people are saying, being familiar with these words will help.

Use the [control]+[f] keys on your keyboard to find it fast.  

Let us know if we missed anything & we'll add it. Have fun!

27.5 Mountain bike

a mountain bike with wheels that are approximately 27.5 inches in diameter, and are based on ISO 584 mm (aka 650B) rims.

29er (bicycle)

a mountain bike with wheels that are approximately 29 inches in diameter, and are based on ISO 622 mm (aka 700C) rims.

à bloc

Riding or going "à bloc" means giving it all you've got, going all out, riding as hard as one possibly can (which can be risky for it leaves one in a state where recovery is needed, and therefore vulnerable to being attacked). Example: "I really gave it all in the last kilometers, although I didn't think it was possible until I crossed the line. I just went "à bloc".[1]


adj. abbreviation for aerodynamically efficient.

aero bars

Extension of the handlebars usually allowing the rider to rest his elbows and benefit from improved aerodynamics. Often found on Time trial bicycles or triathlon bicycles.[2]


n. space between the tires and the ground. (Both tires must be off the ground or it isn't "air".) Said to be caught or gotten. See sky.

all mountain


A racing cyclist who excels in both climbing and time trialing, and may also be a decent sprinter. In stage races, an all-rounder is likely to place well in the General classification. Eddy Merckx and Miguel Indurain were notable all-rounders; Lance Armstrong, Ivan Basso, Samuel Sánchez, Cadel Evans, Bradley Wiggins, and Alberto Contador are more contemporary examples. All-rounders are usually Team Leaders in both stage races and classics cycle races. The term all-rounder is also applied to a bicycle designed to function well for varied terrain and uses, unlike the typical bike today which is specifically designed for a narrow range of use and terrain.


A bicycle race typically organized by bicycle messengers or couriers. Alleycat races seek to replicate some of the duties that a working messenger might encounter during a typical day. The races usually consist of previously undisclosed checkpoints, which are listed on a manifest, that a racer will have to go to; once at the checkpoint the racer will have his/her manifest updated. First racer to return with a completed manifest wins. Alleycats were first formalized in Toronto, Canada in 1989; however, messengers have been racing against each other for much longer. Recently, with the boom in urban cycling, many non-messengers have been participating in and organizing alleycat races.[3]


Endearing term to designate a cyclist's child. The latter tends to "anchor" the rider at his home. Not a pejorative term.[4]


adj. frequently-misspelled abbreviation for "anodized".


1) n. the apex is the middle or sharpest point of a curve 2) v. to plan your line around a bend to touch the inside of the lane at the apex, starting and leaving the turn at the outside of the lane, to flatten out the required curve and increase allowable speeds.

arrière du peloton

From French, literally the "rear of the peloton" (main group of riders). Also called the Feu Rouge (red tail light) or Lanterne rouge.


n. All-Terrain Bike or Biking. A synonym for MTB.


To quickly accelerate while riding in a pack, or in smaller numbers, with a view to create a gap between yourself and other riders.[2]


v. to involuntarily take samples of the local geology, usually with one's face, during a crash. See face plant.


A group of riders in a stage race (typically non-climbers and suffering domestiques) who ride together as a group on the mountain stages with the sole intention of finishing within the stage's time limit to allow them to start the next day. Also known by the Italian term gruppetto.[5]

baby heads

n. small folder lock review - Activators Patch about the size of, irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U, a baby's head.


Colloquial noun meaning to give a second person a ride on a bicycle (UK English), see pump.[6]


Marks of road rash on a cyclist's body.[4]


n. a person that habitually bags out. Also known as a loser.

bagging a peak

v. making it to the summit of a mountain.

bagging out

v. canceling a ride for something other than a death in the family.


1) or bail out. v. to jump off in order to avoid an imminent crash. 2) v. to give up on a ride because of bad weather coming in. (from climbing)


n. on mountain bikes, a technologically backward straight pipe that was otherwise discarded as obsolete in the 19th century. For road bikes, a refined component which promotes aerodynamics, body geometry, muscle teamwork, stability, and comfort.

basecamp rides

adj. setting up camp and using it as the start and finish of tours.


Short for British Best All-Rounder, a season-long time trial competition held in the UK.[7]


n. the part of your tire that fits onto the rim, either wire (heavy and cheap) or Kevlar (light and expensive


1) v. to slip off one pedal, causing the other pedal to slam one in the shin, when one gets kracked with a pedal. 2) n. the toothlike scars resulting from being beartrapped.


1) v. to irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U with reckless disregard to one's equipment, well-being, and/or the ecology of the trail. 2) adj. a term used to describe something that is not good. e.g. "It's pretty beat that the yellow trail is closed."


n. a bike of such little value as to be able to beat on, or a bike that reaction after prolonged beating.


n. insider information about a ride. Running or auto beta is someone telling you how to do the moves as you go (as in "can you please shut up with that running beta, I want to find out myself").

beta flash

n. leading a ride through technical singletrack with no dabbing or dogging, but with a piece of previous knowledge hints on how to do those crux moves. Even seeing someone do the ride already classifies as "previous knowledge."


1) n. any female rider.

beyond category

See hors catégorie.

bicycle shaped object

Also department store bicycle or abbreviated as BSO, a cheaply produced but poor quality bicycle commonly sold in flat packs at big-box stores, mainstream stores and anywhere else but local bike shops.[8][9][10]


A water bottle.[11]


1) n. a crash. Synonyms: wipeout. 1) v. "I biffed and then wiped away the blood."

bike throw

A bike throw occurs in the final moments of a bike race, usually within the last few feet. A sprint is involved, and at the end of the sprint, the rider pushes his arms forward, stretches his back out, and attempts to move his bike as far forward as possible, getting to the finish line before his competitors.[12]


adj. a now-discredited Shimano innovation where the chainrings were made intentionally not circular -- instead, they were elliptical, in order to (allegedly) smooth the power delivery, by giving the rider an effectively lower gear for part of the spin cycle


v. to begin a big climb or ride, after reaching the foot of the long or daunting hill. "We're gonna blast after a snack at the bottom of the wall".


Riders of one team who set a relatively slow tempo at the front of a group to control the speed, often to the advantage of one of their teammates who may be in a break.[2]

blow up

A rider who has gone into oxygen debt and loses the ability to maintain pace is said to have blown up, variations include popping, exploding and detonating. This is a more temporary condition than cracking or hitting the wall.[13]


or bog out. v. to be riding in a circumstance where much pedaling force is required, such as through mud or up a steep hill, and to fail to generate the required torque, generally a result of over gearing, being a wimp, or picking your line incorrectly.


n. a suspension fork or stem; a dual-suspension bike is a boing-boing. "Mark's not going to feel much pain with his new boing-boing."


n. a bike with full (front and rear) suspension. Might possibly be considered offensive by certain owners of said bikes.


v. to ride with wild disregard to personal safety.


n., v. cycling's classic term for blowing up, hitting the wall, or otherwise expiring in mid ride. Can be caused by -- and is frequently blamed on -- insufficient water or calorie intake, but in truth is usually a result of insufficient training. "Had I eaten more linguini last night, I'm certain I wouldn't have bonked."


v. to catch air off of a jump.


Fabric shoe covers worn by cyclists to protect their feet from rain.[14]

bottom bracket

The bearing assembly which allows the crank to rotate relative to the frame. May or may not include the spindle which connects the two arms, depending on the standard to which it was designed.[2][13]

boulder garden

n. section of road or trail that is covered with basketball sized or larger boulders.


n. the rubber strip placed inside the rim to protect the tube from the nipples.


n. a biking computer, usually featuring an odometer, speedometer, clock, and other "important" display modes.

brain bucket

A bicycle helmet.[2][4]

brain sieve

n. a helmet featuring more vents than protective surface.

brake pads

n. the rubber blocks that attach to your brake cantilever arms and make your bike stop or slow down. Read about brake pads.


n. just for the record, is how you spell it. These are what are used to stop you on a bicycle unless you’re riding a fixed gear bicycle.


n. threaded attachments welded to the bike frame to accept the mounting of brake sets, water bottle cages, rear racks, etc.


or breakaway. n., v. a splitting of the field, where some riders race ahead, trying to avoid being reabsorbed by the larger and more aerodynamically efficient peloton.


Breakaway, or break in short, is when a small group of riders or an individual have successfully opened a gap ahead of the peloton.[2]

breakaway specialist

A breakaway specialist is a rider who is specialized in attacking the race from the start in order to show off his sponsor and to try his luck in winning the stage without having to fight with the whole peloton at the finish line.


A rider who is a slow climber but an efficient descender.[5]


When a lone rider or smaller group of riders closes the space between them and the rider or group in front of them. This term often refers to when riders catch up with the main pack (or peloton) of riders or those who are leading the race.[13]

bring home a Christmas tree

v. to ride (or crash) through dense bushes, so leaves and branches are hanging from your bike and helmet. See prune.

broom wagon

A support vehicle following a group of cyclists in a race, tour or recreational ride that may carry equipment, food, rider luggage, or mechanics. May also pick up riders unable to continue. Also called a SAG wagon.[13][15][16][17]


v. to ride up a steep hill without slowing (much) from the flatland cruising speed you approached the hill with.


Synonym of peloton.[13]

bunch sprint

The riders arrive near the finish in massive numbers to contest the victory and attempt to draft their sprinters in a good position to claim the victory. Speeds higher than 60 km/h are to be expected.[11]


1) n. same as betty, but used to emphasize the female rider's body; could be considered insulting to some. 2) n. female novice rider.

bunny hop

v. to lift both wheels off the ground by crouching down and then exploding upward, pulling the bike with you. Useful for clearing obstructions, such as curbs, potholes, logs. Differs from its older BMX & trials meaning -- see jump.


n. a rim braking surface that's bent inward towards the tube, forming a section that looks rolled like a burrito. n. great post ride food.


v. a term used the same as the verb "to do" only with more emphasis. e.g. "He busted a huge air over that jump."


1) n. euphoric feeling. Commonly used after a particularly hard passage is successfully completed. "I got such a buzz after that uphill grunt." 2) v. to touch wheels, or ride in very close formation from the rear.


The rate at which a cyclist pedals (in revolutions per minute).[2]


adj., n. short for Campagnolo, the famed Italian road bike component manufacturer. They are generally artfully machined and elegantly engineered, and cost enough to feed a starving Sudanese village for a year. The Georgio Armani of bike parts, but you get what you pay for. Also the company that invented the derailleur, quick release and many other indispensable cycling innovations we take for granted.


adj. most common type of brake found on mountain bikes today. Named for the two cantilever arms that pivot on the forks (front) or seat stays (rear).

captain crash

v. to "go down with the ship". Usually the result of a novice spud-user failing to clip out in time.


The team cars following behind the peloton in support of their racers. Also designates the publicity cars that precede.[11]


v. (from skiing) to ride with great speed around the corners of a twisting fire road.


adj. to be too tired to ride any farther; bonked.


The rear cog cluster on a derailleur bicycle, that fits on a freehub. It consists only of cogs, with no ratcheting mechanism, as the ratcheting mechanism is in the freehub.[13]


n. European adult and child bike helmet standard.


n. a 100 mile bike ride, or a metric century which is 100 km. Takes about four and a half or three hours, respectively, on a road bike, if you're in reasonable shape. (The ability to do a metric century in 2.5 to 3 hours is why people get road bikes.)


adj. rims with ceramic braking surfaces, to increase stopping power and to reduce the mess that high-powered brake shoe compounds make of aluminum.

chain gang

A group of cyclists cycling in a close knit formation akin to a road race, normally for the purposes of training.[5]

chain slap

Annoying slapping of the bike's chain against the chainstays while riding over rough terrain.[18]

chain suck

The tendency of a chain to stick to chain rings and be sucked up into the bike instead of coming off the chainring. Primarily caused by worn chainrings and rust on small chain rings, under high loads, and in dirty conditions.[2]


n. a gear at the front, attached to the cranks.

chainring tattoo

n. the dotted-line scar you get from gouging your shin on the chainring. See rookie mark.


The front part of the drivetrain where the chain engages. May be composed of one to three gears.[2]


One of the two frame tubes that run horizontally from the bottom bracket shell back to the rear dropouts.[2]


A group of one or more riders who are ahead of the peloton trying to join the race or stage leader(s). There may be none, one, or many chases at any given point in a race.[2]

cheese grater

v. to grind off your skin against gravel, ashfault, bike parts, or the like.


A sequence of tight turns, often s-shaped, usually most important near the finish of a road-race or during a criterium.


v. to crash.


n. a very steep gully. The word chute is french for fall and refers to the rockfall that is very common in a chute.

circle of death

The stage of the 1910 Tour de France in the Pyrenees that included the cols: Peyresourde, Aspin, Tourmalet and Aubisque, was named the "Circle of Death". Now the hardest mountain stage in the Tour takes on this name.[19]


A one-day race of great prestige. Some classics date back to the 19th century.[1][11]


v. to negotiate a trail successfully without crashing. "I cleaned that last section."


1) n. one who desires to remain clean 2) n. a wimp who will not have fun, stays on the clean trails.


n. a cleat attaches to the bottom of a cycling shoe. Older style cleats have a slot that fits over the back of the pedal, and in conjunction with toe clips and straps, hold your foot on the pedal. Now clipless pedals have a specially designed cleat that locks into the pedal, sometimes with some ability to rotate side-to-side so as not to stress knees.


A rider who specializes in riding uphill quickly, usually due to having a high power-to-weight ratio.


A type of tire that uses a bead around the edge of the tire to attach to the rim of the wheel when inflated. The inner tube is separate.[2]

clincher tires

n. tires which use a separate tire and tube, the latter replaced after a puncture. Contrast with tubular tires.

clip out

or click out. v. to disengage one's spuds.


adj. misleading name for a pedal-and-shoe system where the clips or cleats clip onto the soles of special shoes. Called "clipless" because you can't see the clips when you're clipped in. Contrast with toe clips.


n. slamming into the ground, resulting in a ringing head, or a delay in the action. Term used in biking, skiing, and snow boarding.

closed circuit

n. A racecourse that is completely closed to traffic. Closed circuits are most often used in criteriums or road races that use a relatively short lap (2-5 miles).

closing the door

A strategic move during a sprint where the leader is less than a bike length ahead of a stronger sprinter and said stronger sprinter is between the leader and the course wall. Leader angles towards the wall narrowing the lane thus making it impossible for the stronger sprinter to get past the leader.


n. an assembly of gears. Usually described by their configuration: "My rear cluster is a 12-25." Also known as a cassette.


n. one who allows his bike to fall in disrepair, and whose bike invariably fails him at some point in every ride. These people don't know why their bike always breaks, and often would rather buy new parts than keep their bike in good condition.


n. a single gear, usually at the rear as part of a freewheel or cassette. Also rear cog or front cog.


n. the lowest point between two mountains. Also called a pass.


A race judge, in road-racing they are usually based in a car following the event.[1]


n. the moving parts of a bike that are attached to the frame.


n. the little plastic or rubber thing that protects your tube's valve stem from rim damage.


v. to become covered in silt, usually after a fall.


An attack that is made when a break has been caught by chasers or irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U peloton.[20]

Coup de Chacal

Literally "Jackal Trick",[21] also known as "Cancellara's Trick". Surprise attack in the two last kilometers to detach from the peloton and, finally, win the race.


n. a bicycle helmet standard set by the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. All bicycle helmets made in the US have to meet this standard.


When a cyclist runs out of strength or energy, they are said to have cracked. Compare with hit the wall.[22]

cranial disharmony

adv. how one's head feels after augering. "When my lid nailed that rock, I had a definite feeling of cranial disharmony."


1) v. to mash on the pedals as hard as you can, and then some. As in, "I cranked so hard on getting out of that little valley, but my tire spun out and I had to walk it." 2) v. to hammer or sprint.

crank arm

A crank. One of the two arms of a crankset. Each arm connects a pedal to the bottom bracket.

crank arm

n. the metal arms to which the pedals attach .

crank pipe

term used to describe the small pipe shaped adaptor necessary to inflate the tires on a disk wheel as there is no room for a pump head


The bicycle drivetrain assembly that converts the rider's reciprocating pedaling action to rotating motion. It consists of two cranks (or arms), one or more chainwheels(or chainrings), plus the stack bolts that connect them. Sometimes the bottom bracket is included.[23]


1) v. to fail to remain on the trail on the side of the 50 foot dropoff. Usually painful, as in "One of those death cookies joggled my wheel and I almost cratered on that section that looks down on the river." 2) v. to bonk.


v. a mostly road-specific verb that refers to the leaving of skin and viscera on the asphalt after a crash. "I'm not sure Lisa's going to make it tonight. We locked wheels this morning and she crayoned all over the place."


adv. as in, "stick close to the shoulder on the blind corner coming up. I almost got creamed by a transport there last week."


A race on a closed short distance course with multiple laps. Often but not always a 4-cornered course; often includes primes (sho
dabv. to put a foot down in order to catch your balance on a difficult section of trail. "I made it without crashing, but I had to dab once."
dancev. to ride out of the saddle.
danseuse(French: danser - to dance) - riding out of the saddle, standing up, usually in a taller gear than normal, and rocking side to side for leverage. The phrase dancing on the pedals is related.[5]
death cookiesn. fist-sized rocks that knock your bike in every direction but the one you want to proceed in.
death gripn. an overly tight grip on the handlebars caused by fear of terrain, resulting in an endo or other unfortunate mishap.
death marchn. a ride that turns into an investigation of your endurance limit. "The bridge was out, and I had to go all the way back the way I came. So the morning's nice, easy ride turned into a Bataan death march."
derailleurA device used to change gears, activated by shifters.[11]
descenderA cyclist who excels at fast descents, often using them to break away from a group, or bridge a gap.[24]:66
DFLn. abbreviation for, uh, Dead. Last.
dialed inadj. when a bike is set up nicely and everything works just right. Get your bike dialed at your LBS.
dieselA rider who has an even energy output, without any bursts of speed, is said to be a diesel or diesel engine.[5]
diggern. a face plant. "Look at that guy on that gnarly single track. he's going to go over the bars and do a digger."
directeur sportifTeam manager.[11]
dirt biken. an off-road motorcycle. Regarded as only for those too feeble to do the work themselves. Usually louder than MTBs.
dishing a wheeln. refers to the need to build a rear wheel off center of the hub body, to accommodate the freewheel on one side -- the wider the freewheel, the more the wheel needs to be dished.
dolphin hopn. a technique much like a bunny hop, but executed differently. The rider pulls a wheelie, then moves far forward to pitches his bike down, transferring the wheelie to the rear as an obstacle passes underneath. This is the only type of hop possible for a rider using platform pedals.
domestiqueA rider whose job it is to support and work for other riders in their team (literally "servant" in French). Today the term has lost its bad connotation and serves as an acknowledgement of the true nature of racing tactics. See also water carrier.[15]
door prizeA term used when a rider collides with the open door of a parked car while cycling.[25]
double-buttedn. tubing with a higher wall thickness at both ends, to reduce the weight of the tubing for a given weight. See single-butted, triple-butted.
doubletrackn. overgrown road that is like two parallel trails.
down tuben. the part of the frame that connects the head tube and the bottom bracket.
downstroken. when the rider is pushing down on the pedal.
draft1) v. to ride behind a windshield, such as another rider or a motor vehicle. "When I was drafting you down that huge-ass hill, you were pedaling madly while I barely had to turn the cranks!" 2) n. the area sheltered behind a moving object. "You know, it's kinda hard to stay in your draft at high speed if you don't ride in a straight line."
draftingTo ride closely behind another rider to make maximum use of their slipstream, reducing wind resistance and effort required to ride at the same speed.[13]
drilliumn. any part with lots of holes drilled in it to make it lighter.
dropTo be dropped is to be left behind a breakaway or the peloton for whatever reason (usually because the rider cannot sustain the tempo required to stay with the group). To drop someone is to accelerate strongly with the intent of causing following riders to no longer gain the benefit of drafting.[20]:238
drop-offA steep section of a mountain bike trail.[26]
dropoutThe slot, of various sizes and orientations, in the frame that the axles of the wheels attach to.[2]
dropoutsn. the U-shaped slots that accept the wheel axle.
dropsn. the dropped section on dropped handlebars. Used when muscle geometry and an aero tuck are important, such as when ascending, descending, or going fast.
dual-trackn. a dirt road used by four-wheeled vehicles rarely enough that their tires have made ruts that became parallel singletracks. Also called doubletrack. See singletrack.
echelon(French) a line of riders seeking maximum drafting in a crosswind, resulting in a diagonal line across the road.[2][13]
echlonn. a diagonal paceline, which modifies the single-file formation for a crosswind.
endoAn Endo (short for end-over-end), is when the back wheel of the bike is lifted off the ground and the bike goes up onto its front wheel only. It can also be used to designate a crash that is similar to an unintended front flip.[2]
endon. the maneuver of flying unexpectedly over the handlebars, thus being forcibly ejected from the bike. Short for "end over end". "I hit that rock and went endo like nobody's business." See "superman". In BMX riding, "endo" used to be a synonym for front wheelie.
enginen. the rider.
enscarfmentn. a food break at the edge of a cliff.
espoir(French: hope) Age class for riders 19 to 22.[27] Also called U23.[28]
étapeA stage of a stage race.[11]
Excedrin descentn. bone jarring downhill that rattles your brain (providing you have one).
extremeadj. the single adjective that defines a worthwhile sport.
face plantn. hitting the ground face first. "Joe hit a tree root and did a spectacular face plant." Synonyms: auger, digger, soil sample, spring planting.
fair gruntn. an expression exclusively used nonchalantly by others to describe a death march, in hopes others will try it, fail, and revere them as bike gods.
false flatA low-gradient climb, usually occurring partway up a steeper climb. So-called because while it may look deceptively flat and easy (especially after the steep climb preceding it), it is still a climb.[29]
fast finisherA rider who has superior sprinting speed over the last few hundred meters of a race.[30]
feed zoneIn road bicycle racing, a location along the course of a long race where team personnel hand musettes containing food and beverages to passing riders. In mountain bicycle racing, a limited section of the course in which riders may accept food from non-racing assistants. Sometimes this is combined with the technical assistance zone if one exists.[13]
feeling nedlyv., adj. when older riders are having a particular strong outing.
fieldA group of riders, also known as a peloton.[2]
fieldn. the clump of riders near or at the front in a road race. "We made a break on that big ascent, and at one point the rest of the field was over a minute behind."
fieldsprintn. a sprint for the finish line involving a large group of riders. This is an impressive sight indeed.
filet brazingn. the magical art of brazing high-end metal bikes. It’s commonly mistaken for welding, but in actuality the tubes are not melted, rather bronze or other similar alloy are melted to “glue” the tubes together. The tubes fit together with almost invisible seams, as opposed to the monstrous, caterpillar-like welds on most mountain bikes.
first bloodn. credit to the first rider in a group who crashes and starts bleeding as a result.
fishtailv. when the rear end locks and slides about behind you. Occurs during strong braking on loose terrain.
fit kitn. a set of equipment and instructions to measure a person’s body to suggest a bicycle fit. This is early bicycle fit technology that made the assumption a “formula” could determine how every person should be positioned aboard a bicycle. Newer technology has eclipsed this as we now understand fit is individual and personal, so no “formula” exists for the perfect bike fit.
fixedSlang for a fixed-gear bicycle.[31]
fixieSlang for a fixed-gear bicycle.[32]
flailv. to ride badly and out of control. e.g. "He flailed off the jump and hit a tree."
flamme rougeA red flag displayed with one kilometer remaining from the finish line of a race. Usually suspended over the road.[11]
flashv. clearing a technical pitch without dabbing, especially if the rider has no previous experience on the route (See also onsight flash, where the rider has never seen the trail before, and beta flash, where the rider has seen or studied the route.)
flexn. when the frame doesn't stay put when you mash the brakes, mash the pedals, or do other normal things.
flickv. to whip your bike through sweet singletrack.
follow a wheelThe ability to follow a wheel is the ability to match the pace of riders who are setting the tempo. Following is easier than pulling or setting the tempo and the term can be used in a derogatory manner, e.g. "He only ever followed".[11]
foot faultn. when a rider can't disengage his cleats from the pedals before falling over. See horizontal track stand.
forcing the pacev. to increase the speed of the race to the point that other riders have trouble keeping up.
forkPart of the frameset that holds the front wheel. Can be equipped with a suspension on mountain bikes.[11] or a modern eating utensil, unfamiliar to most mountain bikers.
frame tablen. a big strong table that Will Not Flex and which has anchors at critical places -- dropouts, bottom bracket, seat, head. It also has places to attach accurate measuring instruments like dial gauges, scratch needles, etc. The frame is clamped to the table and out-of-line parts are yielded into alignment.
framesetThe bicycle frame plus the front fork.[33]
fred1) n. a person who spends a lot of money on his bike and clothing, but still can't ride. "What a fred -- too much Lycra and titanium and not enough skill." Synonym for poser. 2) n. a person who has a mishmash of old gear, doesn’t care at all about technology or fashion, didn't race or follow racing, etc. Often identified by chainring marks on white calf socks. Used by "serious" roadies to disparage utility cyclists and touring riders, especially after these totally unfashionable "freds" drop the "serious" roadies on hills because the "serious" guys were really posers. This term is from road touring and, according to popular myth, "Fred" was a well-known grumpy old touring rider, who really was named Fred.
free ride
freewheeln. the part of the rear gear cluster that allows the bike to coast without the pedals turning, or what you find in the parking lot after a big race.
front wheelien. what endo used to mean in BMX: a trick where the rider applies the front brake and lifts the back wheel off the ground; this is the basis for many BMX tricks. Most riders cannot pedal effectively while doing a front wheelie.
Full On Conditions (FOC)adj. biking with the chance of running into severe foul weather conditions.
G.C.Abbr.: general classification. the timing splits used to determine who is winning in a stage race. calculated from the first rider over the line each day time is then measured back by gaps from the winner of the day. Time gaps are then calculated back between riders and added to the overall position of riders relative to each other. Riders can attack in stage races for time rather than winning the days stage. They are said to be "riding for G.C.". In such circumstances alliances can form where some riders in a breakaway will work to help others win the days stage despite not contesting the finish as the overall gap the breakaway gains helps them "on G.C."[13][15]
gapA distance between two or more riders large enough for drafting to no longer be effective. Also used as verb (US English), for example: "Contador has gapped Armstrong!". It's much easier for a stronger rider to pull ahead of others once a gap has been achieved; without a gap, the others can draft along using significantly less power to sustain the same speed as the rider in front. While gaps are usually achieved through attacks, on mountain climbs, where slower speeds means the advantage of drafting is much less significant, riders are often gapped who simply cannot maintain the tempo of the faster riders. A gap can also refer to the space in between a jump and the landing, which is common in mountain biking.[15]
gear clustern. an assembly of gears. Usually described by their configuration: "My rear cluster is a 12-25." Also known as a cassette.
getting airv. uh. the exchange of currency for cylinders containing a mixture of compressed nitrogen, oygen, and other trace gasses.
gibletsn. sexy little add-ons or upgrades, usually made of titanium or CNC'd aluminum. "That's the fourth time this week that Tom's gone by the shop to gawk at giblets." (See also velo-porn.)
gnarlyadj. an 80's term for a particular steep and rough section of trail.
gnarly dudeadj. Southern Californian for Gnarly.
gonzo1) adj. treacherous, extreme. "That vertical drop was sheer gonzo." 2) v. riding with reckless abandon. Not generally appropriate for singletrack.
granny gearTwo meanings related to each other: The lowest gear ratio on a multi-speed derailleur bicycle; smallest chainring in front and the largest at the back. The smallest chainring on a crank with triple chainrings.[5][34]
gratev. the act of producing bacon or little flaps of severed skin, against either the ground or a bike component. See also crayon and cheese grater).
gravity checkn. a fall.
grindiesn. as in, "all that dried mud and sand left me with a loud case of the grindies in my drivetrain."
grippedadj. paralyzed with fear and utterly confused.
groupA groupset, or gruppo (from the Italian for "group", often misspelled grouppo) A set of parts usually from a single manufacturer, usually consisting of, at least, bottom bracket, brakes, derailleurs, hubs and shifters, and may also include headset, pedals, and seatpost. A kit is a group, plus everything else a frameset needs to make a complete bicycle.[35]
gruntn. a very difficult climb, requiring use of the granny gear. Often used in understatement, as in "Well, I suppose it's a fair grunt, but we used to ride it all the time."
gruppettosee autobus.[5]
gutter bunnyn. a bicycling commuter.
gutteredIn an echelon, where the size of a draft is limited by the width of the road, to be left with no good position to join the group and be sheltered from the crosswind.[36]
half-trackn. a trail so narrow and/or overgrown that you'd hesitate even to call it singletrack.
half-wheel or half-wheelerA rider that rides half a wheel in front of another on training rides and group rides. No matter how much the pursuer speeds up to keep up with him/her, s/he stays that distance ahead. Usually these people are frowned upon and less desirable to ride with.[37]
hammer1) v. to ride fast and hard. Also to "put the hammer down." 2) n. a hammerhead.
hammeredadj. exhausted.
hammerheadn. a rider who hammers, or simply can ride faster than the one commenting.
hand plantn. a crash where your fall is broken only by cheese grating your hands. Best if done wearing bicycle gloves.
handicapA style of road racing in Australasia where riders are given different start times, calculated based on their previous performance, so that slower riders have a chance of winning.[39]
hanging onv. riding in the slipstream of another rider, but being lazy and refusing to take your turn in at the front.
hardcore1) excl. word of praise and amazement, generally spoken as two separate syllables. 2) adj. impressive or requiring devotion, such as an extreme cliffbombing session.
hardtailn. any bike with front suspension but no rear suspension. Contrast with rigid and F/S.
head tuben. the short frame member that attaches the top tube to the down tube, and holds the headset in place. Normally the fork steer-tube is inside the head tube and pivots in the headset.
headern. going over the handlebars.
headsetn. the bearing assembly that attaches the fork to the head tube.
hill climb (race)A short distance uphill race, usually an individual time trial over approx. 3–5 km. See Hillclimbing (cycling).
Hit the wallTo completely run out of energy on a long ride, also known as "bonking".[5]
honk1) v. to vomit due to cycling exertion. 2) v. to grab hard on the bar ends while climbing to increase torque and traction on the rear wheel.
honking(UK English), see danseuse.[2][5]
hookv. to lock handlebars or wheels, and go down in a bloody pile of metal and muscle.
hooksn. the dropped section on dropped handlebars. Used when muscle geometry and an aero tuck are important, such as when ascending, descending, sprinting or just going fast.
horizontal track standn. a foot fault that happens at a stop sign.
hors catégorie, or HCThe French term primarily used in cycle races (most notably, the Tour de France) to designate a climb that is "beyond categorization", an incredibly tough climb. Most climbs are designated from Category 1 (hardest) to Category 4 (easiest), based on both steepness and length. A climb that is harder than Category 1 is designated as hors catégorie.[11]
hors délai (HD)French for "out of time", when a rider has finished outside the time limit in a race and is eliminated.[40]
hose-pipesn. large-section tubular tires, about the size and weight of clincher touring tires. Much heavier than racing tubulars, which can be two or three times lighter, at as little at 150 grams.
hubn. located at the center of the wheel attached to the rim by the spokes.
huckern. one who is ejected wildly through the air and does not land on his/her feet
hunger knockAlso shortened to "the knock". See hit the wall.[5]
hybridA bicycle that is a compromise between a road bike and a mountain bike. Often chosen by cyclists for its comfort.[13]
hydraulicn. a flavor of brakes which use brake fluid to actuate the pads, which offer better modulation even than most high-end side-pull calipers.
hypergliden. freewheel cogs with small "ramps" cut into the sides of the cogs which tend to pull the chain more quickly to the next larger cog when shifting.
idiot levern. the gimmicky brake assist lever found on some older road bikes, which allow the rider to brake with his hands on top of the bars, rather than on the brake hoods or on the drops. Ignorant consumers buy bikes with them, although they're no more convenient than braking from the hoods, and for powerful braking the stability, steering, and weight distribution from using the drops is essential.
IMBAn. International Mountain Biking Association. An organization for trail advocacy.
impedimentian. all the junk on a bike that impedes performance and looks bad.
individual time trialRace where riders set off at fixed intervals and complete the course against the clock.[20]:19
intermediate sprintTo keep a race or a tour active there may be points along the course where the riders will sprint for time bonuses or other prizes.[20]:52 Also known as the "Traguardo Volante" (TV) in Italian
involuntary dismountn. a crash.
isolésA class of independent rider in the Tour de France. Also called a Touriste-Routier or Individuel.[41][42]
jetv. to accelerate quickly; to go very fast.
JRAn. abbreviation for the Just Riding Along syndrome (and then the bike spontaneously exploded), a class of warranty claims viewed as highly suspect.
jumpTo aggressively increase speed without warning, hopefully creating a substantial advantage over your opponents. Also (more usually) denoting an attempt to bridge a gap from the peloton or gruppetto to a breakaway. For example: "he is trying to jump across".
jumpn., v. where we now say bunny hop, BMXers used to say "jump".
kackn. an injury to the shin received while doing trials, a kack can be the result of any injury receive during technical riding.
keirinThe keirin is a 2000 meter track event where the riders start the race in a group behind a motorised derny. The derny paces the riders for 1400 meters and then pulls off the track, at which time the cyclists begin a sprint to the finish line. Keirin racing has traditionally been practised in Japan, where it has been a professional sport for over 20 years, and in which pari-mutuel betting on the riders is permitted.
kickAccelerating quickly with a few pedal strokes in an effort to break away from other riders (e.g. "Contador kicks again to try to rid himself of Rasmussen")[43]
kick-outn. a bunny hop in which the rider pushes the back tire to one side.
kickern. a steep section of road or trail.
King of the MountainsThe title given to the best climber in a cycling road race. Also known as Gran Premio della Montagna (GPM) in Italian cycling.
kitA group, plus everything else a frameset needs to make a complete bicycle.[35] in road cycling terminology a complete cycling outfit - bibs, jersey, socks, gloves etc 
kiteIs said of a rider who climbs very well but is a poor descender.[5]
knockReferred to as "the knock". Short for "hunger knock". See hit the wall.[5]
knurledadj. a pattern stamped onto the sides of some steel rims to improve the braking surface.
lachéFrench for "released", see drop.
Lanterne rougeFrench for "red lantern", as found at the end of a railway train, and the name given to the rider placed last in a race.[5][11]
largen. synonym for high. e.g. "You can get some seriously large air off that jump."
laughing groupSame as autobus. Riders who collect together in a road race just concerned with making it to the finish "in the time" so as not to be disqualified or "swept up". Members of the laughing group are not concerned with contesting the finish.
LBSn. abbreviation for "Local Bike Shop".
lead outSprinting technique often used by the lead out man where the rider will accelerate to maximum speed close to the sprint point with a teammate, the sprinter, draftingbehind, hoping to create space between the sprinter and the pack. When the lead out man is exhausted he will move to the side to allow his teammate to race in the sprint. Often a line of lead out men will be used to form a lead out train to drive the speed higher and higher (and to reduce the chances of other riders attacking) over the closing stages of a race. The purpose of a lead out is for the sprinter to achieve high speed at the sprint approach using as little of his own energy as possible, so he has as much energy as possible for the final sprint.[2][11]
leechA rider who drafts behind others to reduce his effort, but does not reciprocate. Also wheelsucking.[44]
lidn. helmet.
limitFirst riders to depart in a handicap race.[5]
linen. the desirable path or strategy to take on a tricky trail section or portion of road. e.g. He took the best line. Hey Fred, hold your line!
loop tripn. ride that forms a loop with no backtracking.
lugn. metal reinforcing piece into which the tubing for expensive road bikes is brazed, allowing lighter tubing. The seat lug reinforces the connection between the top tube and the seat tube, for example.
madisonThe madison is a mass-start track event comprising teams of two riders per team. It is similar to a team points race, as points are awarded to the top finishers at the intermediate sprints and for the finishing sprint. Only one of the two team riders is racing on the track at any one time, riding for a number of laps, and then exchanging with his partner by a hand sling. The name comes from the original Madison Square Garden, which was constructed as a velodrome.[45][46]
magic spannerThe situation where a mechanic in a support vehicle will appear to be making adjustments to the bike but in reality they are giving fatigued riders a break by holding onto the car and getting a massive push-off when the commissaires get too close.[47]
Maillot JauneFrench for Yellow Jersey.
male blindnessn. when a male rider watches a beautiful female ride over rough terrain and stares intensely at all the jiggling parts, making him too dizzy to see straight when it's his turn to ride the same terrain.
MAMILAbbreviation of middle-aged men in lycra, a popular bicycle buying demographic for high-end bicycles[48][49][50][51]
mandibular one's jaw feels when it and the handle bars attempt to occupy the same space and time.
mantrapn. hole covered with autumn leaves, resembling solid earth and effective at eating the front wheel of the unsuspecting rider.
manualLifting the front wheel off the ground by the shifting of the rider's weight.[52]
Marinn. (muh RINN') the county in Northern California where MTBing is said to have been invented. Just north of the Golden Gate Bridge.
mashv. to apply much force to the pedals on their downward cycle, generally while standing to climb a steep hill.
mechanicn. a bike mechanic, See also tech and wrench.
minute manThe cyclist starting in a time trial either a minute ahead or behind another rider.[53]
mon. momentum. "If you don't get in gear at the bottom of that hill, you'll lose your mo."
modulationn. the ability to finely and consistently select a specific braking force, rather than moving straight from no braking power to locked wheels and an endo. Hydraulic brakes have great modulation; V-brakes not so much.
motoor Motor Official. n. a race referee or official who uses a motorcycle during the bicycle race event. The motor referee is often primarily responsible for centerline rule enforcement during road races using a rolling enclosure. Motor officials are also used to keep track of riders where cars and the peloton cannot mix (narrow roads, winding roads, etc.).
motor marshaln. race staff on motorcycles responsible for assisting in keeping a racecourse clear and safe for competitors, usually in conjunction with a rolling or protected enclosure.
mountainbike-aneeringn. off shoot sport of mountain biking where peak bagging is a prime consideration. Another sport featuring the "because it's there" attitude.
MTBn. the activity of MounTain Biking. Or a mountain bike itself. Also v. "MTBing". See ATB, OHV, ORV, VTT.
mud boggingv. riding through muck for fun.
mud divingn. what happens when a bike slows abruptly in mud, throwing the rider into wet goo.
mud-ectomy1) v. a shower after a ride on a muddy trail. 2) v. the act of becoming clean.
musetteSmall lightweight cotton shoulder bag, containing food and drink given to riders in a feed zone during a cycle race. The bag is designed so that it can be easily grabbed by a moving rider. The shoulder strap is placed over the head and one shoulder, the contents are then removed and placed into jersey pockets or bottles (bidons) are placed into bottle cages. The bag is then discarded.[54]
muurDutch for wall. A short, steep climb. Originates from the Tour of Flanders locations such as Muur van Geraardsbergen and Koppenberg.[55]
nard guardn. used to prevent wang chung.
NCCAn. abbreviation for National Collegiate Cycling Association. The NCCA is a standing committee of USA Cycling. The NCCA administers, develops, promotes and governs collegiate bicycling across the country. Rules for NCCA bicycle road races are the same as for USCF bicycle race events.
neo-proA first year professional.[43]
nipplen. the nut at the end of a spoke that nobody knows the real name for.
nirvanan. the state of being in absolute control and totally in tune with your bike, the trail, and your physical strength. "I was just doing it all so smoothly and delicately and quickly, it was nirvana!" Synonym for The Zone.
no one else in the pictureTo win a race solo, without any competitors in view. The "victory pose" shows only the winner.[43]
NORBAn. National Off-Road Bicycling Association. As part of USAC, they organize most of the larger mountain bike races.
nose wheelielifting the rear wheel of the bike using the front brake and shifting the rider's weight forward.[56] A stoppie in motorcycling.
nosepickiumn. the crusties you pick from your nose after a ride in a dusty environ.
O.D.This is short for "Off Day". Even the best riders have them. It is important to recognize the symptoms and to back off when you are having an O.D.
off the backadj. when a rider is dropped, or cannot keep up with the pace of the windshield (such as a peloton or another rider) and falls behind.
off the frontadj. when a rider takes part in a breakaway, where one or more riders scoot up ahead of the main peloton in a race.
off-camber turnn. a turn which would usually be banked in the opposite direction, so the banking is the opposite of what would be expected on a racetrack corner. The road's angle is added to, rather than subtracted from, the lean angle. Take these turns cautiously for, among other things, your tread may not extend far enough up the side.
omniumA multi-stage track cycling event whose composition has varied in the past. When reintroduced to the UCI World Championships in 2007, six omnium events have been held, while the European Track Championships have a different set omnium events.[24]:149
on bread and waterIs said of a rider who relies exclusively on good diet and exercise to perform in races. This type of rider refuses to use any form of doping. Can also be said of a performance realised while racing clean at the time the result was achieved. (Example: "I won the criterium on bread and water but then the big race came and .")
on the rivetA rider who is riding at maximum speed. When riding at maximum power output, a road racer often perches on the front tip of the saddle (seat), where the shell of an old-style leather saddle would be attached to the saddle frame with a rivet.[43]
on your wheelThe condition of being very close to the rear wheel of the rider ahead of you. Used to inform the rider that you have positioned yourself in their slipstream for optimum drafting. For example: "I'm on your wheel".[57]
onsight flashv. to clean a section with no previous knowledge of its layout or elements (See also beta flash).
out and backn. tour where the return is a retracing of the route in.
over the barsUnexpected and sudden dismount, either caused by braking too hard with the front wheel or by a road hazard.[2]
Over The Bars (OTB)n. unexpected dismount over the handlebars.
over-the-bar blood donorn. a rider who is injured while doing an endo.
overgearedadj. a condition where the rider is using a gear combination which is too high or "hard" given the circumstances. Generally results in bogging out or needless fatigue.
overlapRiding in a position such that the leading edge of one's front wheel is ahead of the trailing edge of the rear wheel of the bicycle immediately ahead. Overlap is potentially dangerous because of the instability that results if the wheels rub, and the simple fact that it allows the trailing rider to turn only in one direction (away from the wheel of the rider ahead). In road bicycle racing, overlap can be a significant cause of crashes, so beginning riders are instructed to "protect your front wheel" (avoid overlap) whenever riding in a pack.
pacelineGroup of riders riding at high speed by drafting one another. Riders will take turns at irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U front to break the wind, then rotate to the back of the line to rest in the draft. Larger group rides will often form double pacelines with two columns of riders. Sometimes referred to as "bit and bit".[58]
packv., n. a crash or fall. e.g. "He packed into that snow bank and broke his leg." Verb, meaning to quit a ride (typically a race) prematurely.
palmaresA list of races a rider has won. (French, meaning list of achievements or list of winners).
panacheA rider displaying style and/or courage, for example by breaking away, taking pulls at the front of the group, remounting after a crash or riding while suffering injuries. Example: "This rider insisted on continuing the race after the crash. After he crossed the line 100 kilometers later, doctors found out that he had 3 cracked vertebrae and 2 broken ribs."[13]
panic skidv. to try with all one's will and strength to prevent an impending stack by attempting to implant one's heels as deeply as possible in the ground. Usually a dumb idea.
pannierA basket, bag, box, or similar container, carried in pairs attached to the frame, handle bars, or on racks attached above the wheels of a bicycle. Panniers are used by commuters and touring cyclists in the same way hikers and campers use backpacks, as a means to pack and carry gear, clothing and other supplies and items. The term derives from the Old French, from Classical Latin, word for bread basket.[59]
passn. the lowest passage between two mountains. The french - but not just the french - know this as a col. The mathematicians would call this the saddle point.
pavement polishn. the small parallel grooves you find on your bike and its expensive components after you wipe out and smear all aver the blacktop. Pavement polish is the bike equivalent of road rash.
pedaling circlesPedaling smoothly and efficiently.
pedaling squares
peloton(from French, literally meaning little ball or platoon and also related to the English word pellet) is the large main group in a road bicycle race. May also be called thefield, bunch, or pack. Riders in a group save energy by riding close (drafting or slipstreaming) near and, particularly behind, other riders. The reduction in drag is dramatic; in the middle of a well-developed group it can be as much as 40%.[60] also known as the field.
pepOriginating from the popular nickname of a famous Latin American cyclist, "pep" is used as a verb meaning "to carelessly and headlessly ford (as in a small body of water)." For example, "pep" could be used in the sentence "I'm going to pep this creek".
phator fat. adj. used to describe how exceptional something is like a "Phat Air" might be a really styled out trick as well as being "large", that is, very high.
picking a linev. planning the path of the bike by anticipating approaching terrain, or choosing a bar room introduction. Example: "What's your sign?" Common reply: "Trail closed"
pinch flatn. flat tire caused by the tube being pinched between the rim and a hard object, usually due to under -inflated tires
piranha (piranha’d)(UK) A form of theft that specialises in stealing parts from parked and locked bicycles to the eventual point that very little is left of the bike.[61]
pitchn. a short section of technical road or trail.
pogov. to bounce on a full-suspension bike like a pogo stick. Also, for a full-suspension bike to bounce annoyingly and uncontrollably.
pokesn. short for slow pokes. This is someone that always lingers in the back of the pack. This is not a crime.
pootern. also known as a brain, the electronic doodad that keeps track of your speed, cadence, heart rate
portagev. to carry your bike.
posern. derogatory term for people with $$expensive$$ bikes that never actually ride. Usually found near a trail head or coffee shop and never dirty or sweaty. Seinfeld may be an example. Synonym for fred.
potato chipn. a wheel that has been bent badly, but not taco'd.
poursuivantFrom French, literally "pursuing" - refers to a cyclist or group of cyclists who are separated from and behind the leader(s) (tête de la course) but in front of the main group (peloton). This usually occurs when a small number of riders attempt to catch up to the leaders, either to join with them or to "bring them back to the pack" by encouraging the main group to chase them down.[11]
powder runn. extremely dusty section of trail.
powerThe rate at which effective energy is being transferred by the cyclist's legs. Measured through a power meter and normally expressed in watts.
powersliden. a two-wheel sideways slide, with the foot opposite the direction of travel kept on the ground.
prangv. to bend or dent a part of the bike or body.
Prestan. flavor of valve which is taller, lighter and skinnier than Schrader car tire valves, which incorporate a screw-in lock into the valve. These are better, use Presta valves if you have a choice
pretzeled1) adj. the condition in which you find your frame after a less than successful attempt to mail it third class to Abu Dhabi. 2) adj. the condition both you and your bike are found in after a hairy collision.
primePrimes (pronounced preems, after the French word for "gift" (often incorrectly spelled "premes") are intermediate sprints within a race, usually offering a prize and/or points. Primes are a way to encourage more competitive riding, and also an opportunity for companies to gain publicity by sponsoring a prime. In a criterium, a bell is sounded on the lap preceding the prime sprint at the appropriate line for that prime sprint. The line used for prime sprints need not be the same as the start or finish line. Primes may be either predetermined for certain laps or spontaneously designated under the supervision of the Chief Referee. All primes won shall be awarded to riders even if they withdraw from the race. Lapped riders are not eligible for primes except in the following situation: when a breakaway has lapped the main field, riders in the main field and the breakaway riders are then both eligible for primes. When primes are announced for a given group, only riders in that group or behind it at the beginning of the prime lap are eligible. Prizes can be cash, merchandise, or points, depending on the race.[13]
prologueAn individual time trial of usually less than 8 km (5 mi) before a stage race, used to determine which rider wears the leader's jersey on the first stage.[20]
protected enclosuren. a type of traffic control in which the entire road is closed to other traffic as the race passes any given point. The road reopens after the race passes.
prunev. to use one's bike or helmet to remove leaves and branches from the surrounding flora, usually unintentional.
pullv. to ride at the front of a group of riders, where there is no protection from wind resistance.
pull back timeTo pull back time is to make up time on another rider who is ahead on G.C. "he needs to "pull back" two minutes if he wants to get in yellow".
pull it backto work to reduce the lead of a breakaway, also used as "he needs to pull him back" or "they need to pull him back".
pull offv. to give up at the front of a group, and return to a position in the formation that is sheltered from wind resistance, such as the back of a paceline.
pull throughv. to take the front position in a paceline after the previous leader has "pulled off" and left for the rear.

Derry Girls: 63 words and phrases you’ll need this glossary for

Channel 4’s new comedy Derry Girls has gone down a storm with viewers since its debut last week.

i described the show – created by Lisa McGee  – as “a female Inbetweeners set during the Troubles”, and it’s a premise that works remarkably well.

The show’s distinct vocabulary has also been one of its most notable features. A mix of slang irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U regional Northern Irish phrases that could baffle some not-so-familiar with the Derry dialect.

To help, here’s a handy guide to the Derry Girls’ lingo:

Ascared: Combination of the words afraid and scared e.g.“I’m ascared of heights”

Bake: Mouth/face e.g. “Shut your bake!

Banjaxed: Broken e.g. “The toilet is banjaxed, call a plumber”

Bars: Gossip / scandal

Boke: Vomit. Of Scottish origin, from the Middle English ‘bolke’

Brit: A member of the British armed forces

Broke: Embarrassed

Broke to the bone: Hugely embarrassed

Buncrana: A popular holiday destination

Buzzing: Very happy

Cat: Not good

Catch yourself on: “Don’t be so ridiculous”

Cack attack: A state of extreme nervousness e.g. “I’m having a complete Cack attack”

The dynamic of the central friend group in Derry Girls is similar to that of The Inbetweeners

Chicken ball special: A local delicacy

Class: Brilliant

Craic: Fun, but also news e.g. “Tell us your craic?” From the English ‘crack’ meaning a good time. The English word entered Irish English from Scots in the mid 20th century, and assumed an Irish Gaelic form.

Cracker: Beyond brilliant

Critter: Someone who evokes sympathy e.g. “You poor Critter”

Dander: Walk

Dead-On: Good, decent e.g “I like him, he’s dead-on”

Dose: An unbearable human being

Dicko: A general insult

Duck/rare duck: Eccentric person, e.g. “a rare duck”

Eejit: Idiot

Foundered: Cold

Gone: Please

Saoirse Jackson makes an excellent turn as the moody Erin Quinn

Good steever: A forceful blow, most likely a kick

Gunk: Severe disappointment

Haul: Hold e.g. “Haul my jacket”

Hi: A sound placed at the end of almost any sentence for no particularly reason e.g. “No problem hi”

Head melter: Someone who causes you mental distress

Hoak: Rummage e.g. “That man hoaks through the bins”

Join: To tell off or scold

Juke: a quick look

Keepin’ Dick: Keeping lookout e.g. “Keep-dick for me”

Lurred: Absolutely delighted

Mind: “Do you remember?”

Mouth: Someone prone to exaggeration

Mucker: Friend. Middle English word probably from the phrase “muck in”, meaning to help.

Neb: Nose e.g. “That man has a massive neb”

No Bother: “That’s no trouble whatsoever”

Peelers: Police

Raging: Annoyed/angry

Ready for the hills: Harassed, under pressure

Reddener: Embarrassed

Ride (n): A very attractive person

Ride (v): To have sex

Ripping: Extremely annoyed / angry

Derry Girls is set in an all-girls Catholic school in conflict torn Derry

Saunter: “Be on your way”

Sh*te the tights: Someone of a nervous disposition

Slabber: A show off

Slippers: Trainers e.g. “Look at my new slippers”

So it is/so I am: A phrase used for emphasis e.g. “I’m delighted, so I am”

Start: To provoke e.g. “Don’t start me”

Starving: Cold

Stall the ball: “Stop what you’re doing immediately”

Tayto cheese and onion sandwich: A local delicacy

Wain: A child or young person

Watch yourself: Take care

Wile: Very or terrible. Informal Northern Irish adjective of late 19th century origin, meaning very or wild. It represents a pronunciation of wild, probably influenced by earlier Scots use of wile as an alteration of vile.

Wee buns: Easy

Wise up: “Don’t be so stupid and/or immature”

Yes: Hello

This glossary was created by Channel 4, with additional terms and notes from i.

Derry Girls is on Channel 4 on Thursdays at 10pm. Catch up on All 4 now. 

More from i:

Derry Girls review: a female Inbetweeners – set during the Troubles

Most highly anticipated TV dramas of 2018

The biggest new TV shows coming to Netflix in 2018

The biggest new and returning TV shows on Amazon Prime in 2018


Why do O-rings fail? A brief guide to O-ring failure modes


Apowersoft Watermark Remover Crack Activation Code alt="Abrasion O-ring failure" width="300">Visual indications: The sliding contact faces of the O-ring have a grazed surface, with excessive wear there may be deeper lacerations and breaking in places.

Cause: Common in dynamic applications, abrasion occurs from repetitive contact between the O-ring surface and the housing resulting in excessive friction between the two. Improper lubrication or surface finish of the metalwork can exacerbate the risk, as can ingress of abrasive contaminants into the sealing system.

Solution: Ensuring the correct lubrication for the sealing system is important, PPE can offer a range of O-ring sealing materials with improved abrasion resistance. Our engineers can also advise on the correct surface finish for the metalwork. Ingress of contaminants can be reduced through the use of wiper or scraper rings.

Chemical Attack

Chemical attack O-ring failureVisual indications: Dependent on the chemical media being sealed, the O-ring may exhibit a number of signs including blisters, cracking, a change in hardness, or discolouration.

Cause: Some chemicals will react with certain elastomers. More often than not this results in an increase in cross-link density, resulting in a hard and brittle material, with a reduced ability to provide a reaction force.  Chain scission is also possible, resulting in a reduced strength.  Occasionally cross-link density can reduce, resulting in a softer tacky material, which leads to a loss of its original shape and integrity.

Solution:  Correct elastomer material selection is vital to ensure the seal is compatible with the application media.  Chemical attack is accelerated at elevated temperatures and when elastomer seals are under stress, as a result of, for example, excessive stretch or squeeze, and mechanical conditions.  PPE engineers can recommend the most appropriate sealing material based on your application parameters.  For the ultimate in chemical resistance combined with high temperature capability, ask about our Perlast® perfluorolastomers (FFKM).  Check the chemical compatibility of the main elastomer material types using our online guide.

Chemical Swell

Chemical swell O-ring failureVisual indications: The O-ring appears larger than its original dimensions. This may be consistent across the whole seal or in localized areas that have been exposed to the chemical media.

Cause:  Swell is caused by the ingress of media into the elastomer, as the result of a chemical similarity between the compound and the media.  The increased seal volume can lead to gland fill, extrusion and loss of sealing.  Chemical swell can also result in a loss of physical properties such as tensile strength.

Solution: Switch to an elastomer sealing material with proven resistance against the chemical environment.  PPE sealing experts can help you identify a material which will deliver lasting sealing performance in the chemical media within your application. Check the chemical compatibility of the main elastomer material types using our online guide.

Compression Set

Compression set O-ring failureVisual indications: The cross-section of the O-ring becomes less circular with flattened surfaces that have taken the shape of the groove/gland.  The O-ring has taken on a permanent ‘set’ meaning it is unable to recover to its original shape after removal of deforming stresses.  ‘Set’ is quantified as a percentage loss in compression compared to the original compression applied.

Cause:  Physical and chemical changes can occur to an elastomer at elevated temperatures that result in set.  Cross-link density can increase, this results in the O-ring losing its elasticity and ability to return back to the original shape, this is a permanent chemical change.  Stresses introduced to the seals at elevated temperatures can be unable to relax when the temperature is reduced, this is often referred to as cold set, this type of set is reversible upon heating.  The reduction in cross section results in a lower contact sealing force, which increases the risk of leakage in systems where thermal and pressure cycling occurs. Other causes include improper gland design, volume swell due to system fluid and incomplete curing of the seal during production.  

Solution: Selecting elastomer materials with low compression set and/or higher temperature capability will help to extend seal life.  Gland design should also be checked to ensure the O-ring is not over-compressed with too much squeeze applied.   Cold set can be reduced by using a more flexible polymer structure, this would be reflected in a lower glass transition temperature.
> Watch webinar: The facts about compression set

Extrusion irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U Nibbling

Extrusion O-ring failureVisual indications:  The edges of the O-ring on the low pressure side have a nibbled, chipped or ‘frilly’ appearance.   Shaving can occur in severe cases where the surface of the O-ring appears to be peeled off.

Cause: High stresses, usually as a result of high pressures, forces the material into the clearance gap, this process is typically called extrusion. Pulses of high pressure can cause the clearance gap between the mating edges to open and close. This can lead to the O-ring becoming trapped between the sharp edges of the mating surfaces, resulting in physical damage to the seal surface often referred to as nibbling.

Solution: A harder seal material can help, as can the use of backup devices to effectively reduce clearance gaps. Your PPE sealing expert can also advise on the installation of correctly sized O-rings and back up devices for your application, decreasing your clearance gaps and minimizing the risk of extrusion and nibbling.

Explosive Decompression

Explosive decompression O-ring failureVisual indications: The seal surface may be blistered, cracked, marked with deep splits or completely ruptured in the worst examples.

Cause:  When elastomer seals are exposed to high-pressure gas at elevated temperatures for a prolonged period of time the gas absorbs into the polymer compound.  When the external pressure is reduced, the gas dissolved within the material comes out of solution to form micro bubbles.  As the gas expands, it will permeate out of the material. Failure occurs if the rate of decompression and expansion is high, and the trapped gas within the seal expands beyond the materials ability to contain the gas bubbles.

Solution: Increasing the time for decompression and reducing the temperature will typically reduce the risk of explosive decompression (ED) damage, as will choosing an ED-resistant material.  PPE has been an industry leader in the development of ED-resistant elastomer seals and O-rings – conforming to NACE TM0187, TOTAL GS EP PVV 142 Appendix 8, NORSOK M710 Annex B and ISO 23936-2 Annex B international standards, and improving operational safety and efficiency.
> Watch video: Causes of elastomer O-rings and seal failure - RGD

Installation Damage

Installation damage O-ring failureVisual indications: Damage caused to the seal during installation can often be diagnosed by specific and exact cutting and notching on the seal surface, with all damage restricted to the O-ring surface.

Cause: Installation damage can take a wide range of forms, from ‘skiving’ of the seal with metal components through to damage caused by careless installation of dirty, twisted or improperly lubricated seals. Incorrect sizing of the seal for the application is also a significant factor in installation damage.

Solution: Taking care during the installation of O-rings is key to preventing installation. Covering sharp edges and threads using tape or protective sheaths will prevent nicks to the surface. Ensuring hardware has suitable lead-in chamfers aids the make-up of the hardware, along with suitable lubrication.


outgassed o-ringsVisual indications: Usually the seal demonstratres no visible change. In extreme cases, shrinkage can be observed.

Cause: Constituent ingredients within the elastomer formulation can be released (volatilized) under vacuum conditions. These constituents can be either a part of the elastomer formulation, the decomposition products of the ingredients or other gasses which are trapped in the polymer matrix during the molding process.  In semiconductor applications, out-gassed molecules can cause contamination during wafer processing. In industrial applications it can affect vacuum performance.

Solution: Materials formulated with pure polymers and no volatile ingredients (eg. plasticisers, waxes, etc) provide lower outgassing. Using materials rated to the correct temperature for the application also helps keeping the outgassing at the minimum level.
> Watch video: Causes of elastomer O-ring and seal failure - Outgassing

Plasma Degradation

Plasma degradation O-ring failureVisual indications: A key marker is an even material loss on the surface of the part which is in contact with the plasma. In some cases powdery residue on the seal surface and discolouration can also be observed depending on the filler type of the material.

Cause: Plasmas consist of extremely high energy ionised gasses and/or radicals which attack the organic backbone of the material and form small molecules or particles. The etching occurs as ion bombardment, along with chemical attack.

Solution: With long term exposure to plasma, seal damage is unavoidable. The chemical compatibility of the material can help to resist damage for longer, improving the lifetime of the seal and reducing the impact of equipment downtime. Ask your PPE sealing expert about Perlast®, Nanofluor® and Kimura® materials which provide plasma resistance that is comparable or superior to many high purity FFKM grades.
> Watch video: Causes of elastomer O-rings and seal failure - Plasma Degradation

Spiral Failure

Sprial O-ring failureVisual indications: The seal demonstrates a tell-tale spiralling pattern around its exterior, with subsequent deep cutting of the seal surface at 45 degree angles where the highest stress levels are apparent.

Cause: Spiralling of an O-ring can occur during dynamic, reciprocating motion, either during installation or in use. The levelling of spiralling is affected by many different factors including, but not restricted to, uneven surface finishes, improper lubrication, friction, installation errors and eccentric components.

Solution: A harder O-ring material is a good starting point for the prevention of spiralling. You might also consider a different seal profile, with PPE X-rings (quad rings) and D-seals proven to resist spiralling without a reduction in seal performance.  If a high pressure seal is required, the T-seal provides a robust sealing solution with complimentary backup rings. X-rings, D-seals and T-seals can usually fit existing O-ring grooves/glands.

Thermal Degradation

Thermal degradation O-ring failureVisual indications: There may be instances of radial cracking on surfaces bearing the highest temperatures. If the seal material is prone irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U thermal softening, the surface may also become shinier in places. Thermal degradation is often accompanied by compression set.

Cause: The temperature of the application has exceeded the maximum temperature ceiling of the selected seal material or excessive temperature cycling has occurred.  High temperatures can increase the cross-link density in elastomers resulting in an increase in hardness and modulus, making them less elastic.

Solution:  Selection of a higher temperature elastomer material is the obvious solution.  PPE can provide reliable high temperature sealing up to +325°C (+617°F) with its range of Perlast® perfluoroelastomers (FFKM).

Thermal Extrusion

Thermal extrusion O-ring failureVisual indications: There are obvious signs of set with the O-ring no longer having a round profile.  A ‘frilly’ edge will be evident on two opposing sides or areas of ‘nibbling’ where sections of the O-ring surface have been damaged. In high pressure applications, the extrusion or nibbling may be held off on the high pressure side and only evident on the low pressure side. The O-ring often takes on the shape of the groove.

Cause:  The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of an elastomer is typically much higher than that of the surrounding hardware.  This means at elevated temperatures the volume of the elastomer will have increased greater than that of the material surrounding it; therefore at elevated temperatures O-rings can fill the groove and then subsequently extrude into the clearance gaps.

Solution:  Groove/gland design should be optimised such that there is sufficient space to accommodate the additional seal volume at high temperatures and avoid ‘gland fill’ - see our online groove/hardware dimensions guide. 
> Watch video: Causes of elastomer O-ring and seal failure - Thermal Expansion

UV Degradation

Visual indications: The earliest sign on exposed surfaces of O-rings will be discolouration, with excessive exposure in prone materials leading to subsequent cracking and, in extreme cases, disintegration.

Cause: Ultraviolet light exposure on an elastomer material can have a destructive effect. UV light has short wavelength, therefore it has high energy, which can interact with the molecular structure of the exposed side of the elastomer. This generally results in cleavage of the polymer chains and causes cracking on the surface, which will lead to leaking and premature failure.

Solution: Black materials typically resist UV damage better than other colors, fluorinated materials also demonstrate higher resistance.  For UV processes used in sterilisation procedures and semiconductor manufacturing, contact PPE for material recommendations.

More resources:
Common Causes of Seal Failure in Oil & Gas



  1. What Is A Recession?
  2. Causes of the Recession
  3. Subprime Crisis
  4. Fed Drops Interest Rates
  5. Stimulus Package
  6. Too Big to Fail
  7. TARP Program
  8. Aftermath of the Great Recession
  9. Dodd-Frank Act
  10. Sources

The Great Recession was a global economic downturn that devastated world financial markets as well as the banking and real estate industries. The crisis led to increases in home mortgage foreclosures worldwide and caused millions of people to lose their life savings, their jobs and their homes. It’s generally considered to be the longest period of economic decline since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Although its effects were definitely global in nature, the Great Recession was most pronounced in the United States—where it originated as a result of the subprime mortgage crisis—and in Western Europe.

What Is A Recession?

A recession is a decline or stagnation in economic growth, but the economic indicators used to define the term “recession” have changed over time.

Since the Great Recession, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has described a “global recession” as a decline in real per-capita world gross domestic product (GDP), as supported by other macroeconomic indicators such as industrial production, trade, oil consumption and unemployment, for a period of at least two consecutive quarters.

By that definition, in the United States, the Great Recession started in December 2007. From that time, until the event’s end, GDP declined by 4.3 percent, and the unemployment rate approached 10 percent.

Causes of the Recession

The Great Recession—sometimes referred to as the 2008 Recession—in the United States and Western Europe has been linked to the so-called “subprime mortgage crisis.”

Subprime mortgages are home loans granted to borrowers with poor credit histories. Their home loans are considered high-risk loans.

With the housing boom in the United States in the early to mid-2000s, mortgage lenders seeking to capitalize on rising home prices were less restrictive in terms of the types of borrowers they approved for loans. And as housing prices continued to rise in North America and Western Europe, other financial institutions acquired thousands of these risky mortgages in bulk (typically in the form of mortgage-backed securities) as an investment, in hopes of a quick profit.

These decisions, however, would soon prove catastrophic.

Subprime Crisis

Although the U.S. housing market was still fairly robust at the time, the writing was on the wall when subprime mortgage lender New Century Financial declared bankruptcy in April 2007. A couple of months earlier, in February, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) announced that it would no longer purchase risky subprime mortgages or mortgage-related securities.

With no market for the mortgages it owned, and therefore no way to sell them to recoup their initial investment, New Century Financial collapsed. Just a few months later, in August 2007, American Home Mortgage Investment Corp. became the second major mortgage lender to crack under the pressure of the subprime crisis and the declining housing market when it entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

That summer, Standard and Poor’s and Moody’s credit ratings services both announced their intention to reduce the ratings on more than 100 bonds backed by second-lien subprime mortgages. Standard and Poor’s also placed more than 600 securities backed by subprime residential mortgages on “credit watch.”

By then, as the subprime crisis continued, housing prices across the country began to fall, due to a glut of new homes on the market, so millions of homeowners—and their mortgage lenders—were suddenly “underwater,” meaning their homes were valued less than their total loan amounts.

Fed Drops Interest Rates

Interestingly, on October 9, 2007, the U.S. stock market reached its all-time high, as the key Dow Jones Industrial Average exceeded 14,000 for the first time in history.

However, that would mark the last bit of good news for the U.S. economy for some time.

Over the next 18 months, the Dow would lose more than half its value, falling to 6,547 points. As a result, hundreds of thousands of Americans who had significant portions of their life saving invested in the stock market suffered catastrophic financial losses.

Indeed, over the course of the Great Recession, the net worth of American households and non-profits declined by more than 20 percent from a high of $69 trillion in the fall of 2007 to $55 trillion in the spring of 2009—a loss of some $14 trillion.

With the American economy teetering, the U.S. Federal Reserve (or “Fed”) began taking action, reducing the national target interest rate, which lenders use as a guide for setting rates on loans.

Interest rates were at 5.25 percent in September 2007. By the end of 2008, the Fed had reduced the target interest rate to zero percent for the first time in history in hopes of once again encouraging borrowing and, by extension, capital investment.

Stimulus Package

Of course, lowering the target interest rate wasn’t the only thing the Fed and the U.S. government did to combat the Great Recession and minimize its effects on the economy.

In February 2008, President George W. Bush signed the so-called Economic Stimulus Act into law. The legislation provided taxpayers with rebates ($600 to $1,200), which they were encouraged to spend; reduced taxes; and increased the loan limits for federal home loan programs (for example, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac).

This last element was designed to, hopefully, generate new home sales and provide a boost to the economy. The so-called “Stimulus Package” also provided businesses with financial incentives for capital investment.

Too Big to Fail

However, even with these interventions, the country’s economic troubles were far from over. In March 2008, investment banking giant Bear Stearns collapsed after attributing its financial troubles to investments in subprime mortgages, and its assets were acquired by JP Morgan Chase at a cut-rate price.

A few months later, financial behemoth Lehman Brothers declared bankruptcy for similar reasons, creating the largest bankruptcy filing in U.S. history. Within days of the Lehman Brothers’ announcement, the Fed agreed to lend insurance and investment company AIG some $85 billion so that it could remain afloat.

Political leaders justified the decision, saying AIG was “too big to fail,” and that its collapse would further destabilize the U.S. economy.

TARP Program

With fears that similar collapses could be sustained by other major financial companies and banks, President Bush approved the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) in October 2008. TARP essentially provided the U.S. government with $700 billion in funds to purchase the assets of struggling companies in order to keep them in business. The deals would enable the government to sell these assets at a later date, hopefully at a profit.

Within a few weeks, the government spent $125 billion in TARP funds in acquiring assets from nine U.S. banks. In early 2009, TARP funds were also used to bail out automakers General Motors and Chrysler (a combined $80 billion) and banking giant Bank of America ($125 billion).

January 2009 also brought with it a new administration in the White House, that of President Barack Obama. However, many of the old financial problems remained for the new president to tackle.

In his first few weeks in office, President Obama signed a second “Stimulus Package” into law, this time earmarking $787 billion for tax cuts as well as spending on infrastructure, schools, health care and green energy.

Whether or not these initiatives brought about the end of the Great Recession is a matter of debate. However, at least officially, the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) determined that, based on key economic indicators (including unemployment rates and the stock market), the downturn in the United State officially ended in June 2009.

Aftermath of the Great Recession

Although the Great Recession was officially over in the United States in 2009, among many people in America and in other countries around the world, the effects of the downturn were felt for many more years.

Indeed, from 2010 through 2014, multiple European countries—including Ireland, Greece, Portugal and Cyprus—defaulted on their national debts, forcing the European Union to provide them with “bailout” loans and other cash investments.

These countries were also compelled to implement “austerity” measures—such as tax increases and cuts to social benefit programs (including healthcare and retirement programs)—to repay their debts.

Dodd-Frank Act

The Great Recession also ushered in a new period of financial regulation in the United States and elsewhere. Economists have argued that repeal in the 1990s of the Depression-era regulation known as the Glass-Steagall Act contributed to the problems that caused the recession.

While the truth is probably more complicated than that, repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act, which had been on the books since 1933, did allow many of the country’s larger financial institutions to merge, creating much larger companies. This set the stage for the “too big to fail” bailouts of many of these firms by the government.

The Dodd-Frank Act, which was signed into law by President Obama in 2010, was designed to restore at least some of the U.S. government’s regulatory power over the financial industry.

Dodd-Frank enabled the federal government to assume control of banks deemed to be on the brink of financial collapse and by implemented various consumer protections designed to safeguard investments and prevent “predatory lending”—banks who provide high-interest loans to borrowers who likely will have difficulty paying.

After he was inaugurated, President Donald Trump and some members of Congress made several efforts to gut key portions of the Dodd-Frank Act, which would remove some of the rules protecting Americans from another recession.

READ MORE: The Great Recession Timeline


Rich, Robert. “The Great Recession.”
“New Century files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.”
Full Timeline. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
“Bush signs stimulus bill; rebate checks expected in May.”
“JPMorgan scoops up troubled Bear.”
Glass, Andrew. “Bush signs bank bailout, Oct. 3, 2008.”
Amadeo, Kimberly. “Auto Industry Bailout (GM, Chrysler, Ford).”
“Bank of America gets big government bailout.
“Obama Signs Stimulus Plan Into Law.”
Isidore, Chris. “Recession officially ended in June 2009.”
The Christian Science Monitor. “Timeline on the Great Recession.”
“European Debt Crisis Fast Facts.”
Zarroli, Jim. “Fact Check: Did Glass-Steagall Cause The 2008 Financial Crisis?”
“Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.”
Senate Banking Committee introduces repeal of Dodd-Frank Act. HousingWire.


Irish Gaelic Phrases and Expressions

Gaelic Matters> Irish Gaelic Phrases

There are lots of wonderful Irish Gaelic phrases and expressions, some of which have been translated to English but I have to say the often quoted ‘Top of the morning to you’ is not one of them. I know of no Irish person who uses it and it sounds as strange to Irish people as it does to most other people. In fact, I am not sure where that phrase originated though I have heard it rumoured that it may be from New Zealand but I wouldn't bet on it.

Now that that’s off my chest, let’s start with some Irish Gaelic phrases and Gaelic expressions that most Irish people should know or have learned in school. I give a non-linguistic pronunciation guide to the expression, a fairly literal translation and an equivalent English expression.

It is important to know that some Gaelic expressions vary from one dialect to another. In Ireland there are three key dialects, in the North (Ulster), West (Connaught) and South (Munster). I will go into these differences in more detail elsewhere. Anyway most people in Ireland learn standard Gaelic in school, basically a mix of all three dialects.

In the pronunciation guide for all the Irish Gaelic phrases below I have left 'ch' as is. This is because 'ch' in Gaelic does not have an equivalent sound in English. That said, many people will be familiar with the throaty sound made in the Scottish and Irish word 'loch'. This is the correct sound. If you are not able to replicate this sound, pronounce 'ch' as a 'k'. It may not be correct but you will be understood. Just don't pronounce 'ch' as 'ch' in 'church' which no one will understand.

I have included a video of the words below to help you with the pronunciation. While I am not a native speaker, my pronunciation should be reasonably accurate.

Irish Gaelic Phrases most Irish people know

Literal Meaning
In English

Dia duit
Dee-ah gwit 
God to you
Literal Meaning
In English
Dia is Muire dhuit
Dee-ah iss Mwir-eh gwit
God and Mary to you 
Hello, the response to 'Dia dhuit'
Literal Meaning
In English
Cad is ainm duit?
Cod iss anim gwit?
What is the name to you?
What is your name?
Literal Meaning
In English
Seán is ainm dom
Seán iss anim dum
Seán is the name to me
My name is Seán
Literal Meaning
In English

Níl a fhios agam
Neel ah iss a-gum
The knowledge is not at me
I don't know

Literal Meaning
In English

Dún an doras
Doon on dur-ass
Close the door
Close the door

Literal Meaning
In English
Slán leat
Slawn lat
Health/Safety with you
Literal Meaning
In English
Más é do thoil é
Maws aye duh hull aye 
If it is your will
Literal Meaning
In English

Ní thuigim
Nee hig-im
Not I understand
I don't understand

Literal Meaning
In English
Cheers (toast)
Literal Meaning
irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U In English
Gabh mo leithscéal
Gov muh leh-scale
Accept my excuse
Excuse me, Pardon me
Literal Meaning
In English

Conas atá tú?
Kun-ass a-taw to?
How are you?
How are you?

Literal Meaning
In English
Tá me go maith
Taw may guh maw
I am well
I am well
Literal Meaning
In English
Oíche mhaith
Ee-hah wah
Night good
Literal Meaning
In English
Go raibh maith agat
Guh rev mah ah-gut
That there may good at you
Literal Meaning
In English
Tá fáilte romhat
Taw fall-che row-at
There is a welcome before you
You're welcome (response to thanks and a greeting)

Gaelic Expressions that are good to know

Literal Meaning
In English

Cad as dhuit?
Cod oss gwit? 
Where out of are you?
Where are you from?
Literal Meaning
In English
Is as na Stáit Aontaithe mé
Iss oss nah Stawt Ane-tih-hah may
It is out of the States United I am
I am from the United States
Literal Meaning
In English
Abair arís é
Ah-bur areesh aye
Say again it
Say it again
Literal Meaning
In English
Maith thú
Moh hoo
Good to you
Well done
Literal Meaning
In English

Slán go fóill
Slawn guh foal
Health/Safety till later
See you later

Literal Meaning
In English

Tá áthas/fearg/ocras/tart/brón/díoma orm
Taw aw-hass/far-ig/uk-rass/ tort/brone/de-om-a orum
There is happiness/anger/hunger/ thirst/sadness/disappointment on me
I am happy/angry/hungry/thirsty/sad/disappointed

Literal Meaning
In English

Tá sé fuar/te/gaofar/ ag cur báistí/ag cur sneachta/
Taw shay foor/cheh/gway-for/ egg kur baw-shtee/egg kur shnach-tah
It is cold/hot/windy/putting rain/putting snow
It is cold/hot/windy/raining/snowing

Literal Meaning
In English
Is/Ní maith liom é
Iss/Nee moh lum aye
It/Not agrees with me
I like it/I don't like it
Literal Meaning
In English

Ar mhaith leat tae/deoch?
Err wah lat tay/juhch?
Would a tea/drink agree with you?
Would you like some tea/drink

Literal Meaning
In English
Is cuma liom
Iss cum-ah lum

I don't mind/I don't care
Literal Meaning
In English
An bhfuil Gaeilge agat?
On will Gail-geh ah-gut?
Is there Gaelic at you?
Do you speak Gaelic/Irish?
Literal Meaning
In English

A small bit
A little

Literal Meaning
In English

Tá cúpla focal agam
Taw koop-la fuck-al a-gum
There is a couple of words at me
I speak a little Irish (like 'beagáinín' a response to 'An bhfuil Gaeilge agat?'

Literal Meaning
In English
Is múinteoir/macléinn/dlídóir/Éireannach mé
Iss moon-tore/mack-lane/dlee-dore/Air-en-och may
Is a teacher/student/lawyer/Irish person I am
I am a teacher/student/lawyer/Irish person
Literal Meaning
In English
Cén chaoi a bhfuil tú?
Kane chwee (kwee) a will to?
What way are you?
How are you? Same as 'Conas atá tú?' above but used in Western Gaelic dialect
Literal Meaning
In English
Conas atá an craic?
Kun-ass a-taw on crack?
How's the craic/fun?
What's up?
Middle Left

Merry Christmas in Gaelic

Merry Christmas Gaelic

The Irish Gaelic phrase for Merry Christmas is 'Nollaig shona dhuit' (pronounced Null-ig hun-ah gwit). You can also say 'Nollaig faoi shéan is faoi mhaise dhuit' (pronounced Null-ig fwee hyane iss fwee vosh-eh gwit) which means 'A prosperous and pleasant Christmas'

To say Happy New Year, we use the gaelic expression 'Athbhliain faoi mhaise dhuit' (prononunced 'aw-vlee-an fwee  vosh-eh gwit' ) which can be more close translated as 'A prosperous New Year.'

Happy Birthday in Gaelic

Happy Birthday Gaelic

The gaelic expression for 'Happy Birthday' is simply 'Lá Breithe Shona dhuit' (pronounced 'Law breh-ha hun-ah gwit). If you want to reveal your age you can say the following: 'Tá mé fiche seacht mbliana d'aois' (pronounced 'Taw may fih-heh shocht mleena deesh') which means 'I am 27 years of age'.

You can also wish somebody well on their birthday by using the humorous Irish Gaelic phrase 'Go maire tú an lá' (pronounced 'Guh mwir-eh to on law) meaning 'May you survive the day.'

Póg mo thóin


The Irish Gaelic phrase 'Póg mo thóin' (pronounced pogue mohone) is one of the first Irish Gaelic phrases that many visitors to Ireland learn, probably because people just seem to love learning curses as much as teaching them. It means literally 'Kiss my ass' but can be used as 'Get out of it' when you think somebody is trying to pull the wool over your eyes or when you get annoyed with them.

The London-Irish band 'The Pogues' were originally called 'Pogue Mahone', an anglicised version of the gaelic expression. Because of BBC censorship, they shortened the name to be less offensive. I have included a video of them singing their best known song 'The Fairytale of New York.'

I am open to correction or suggested improvements on anything above. I would also love to hear of other Irish gaelic phrases you think should have been included as basics. Get in touch with me through the contact GaelicMatters page.

Pages Related to Irish Gaelic Phrases

If you didn't find what you are looking for check out the Irish words page. If you want some tips and suggestions on how to learn Irish Gaelic visit our Learn Irish Language page.

Gaelic Matters> Irish Gaelic Phrases

Glossary of grammatical terms

In some languages, the form of a word varies according to its grammatical function (e.g. whether a noun is singular or plural, or whether a verb is in the present or pasttense). These forms are called inflections, and a word which possesses such forms is said to be inflected. For example, in English the word walked is inflected, showing the past tense form of walk; the suffix -ed is an inflectional suffix.


Old English possessed a large number of inflected forms: for example, forms for case, gender, and number in nouns, pronouns, and adjectives; and forms for tense, person, number, and mood in verbs. However, as the language changed, many of irish lingo crack - Crack Key For U word forms became difficult to distinguish from each other, and other means of expressing the grammatical relationships between words became more important, such as word order and the use of prepositions and auxiliary and modal verbs. In modern English, verbs are still inflected for tense (walk/walked), and to a limited extent for person and number (walk/walks; was/were); pronouns inflect for case (I/me, he/him, etc.), number (I/we), and gender (he/she/it); some adjectives inflect for comparative and superlative forms (-er, -est); and nouns inflect for number (banana/bananas). However, the old case system has mostly disappeared, as have the three grammatical genders, and the surviving inflections are far fewer in number than before.

In the OED, case-inflected forms of pronouns are all treated as separate words (e.g. HE pron., HIM pron.), whereas verb, noun, and adjective inflections are normally treated as part of the same word.


The True Story of the Heroic Battle That Inspired the New Netflix Film The Siege of Jadotville

Noel Carey remembers the mortars screaming in over his head and then the ear-splitting crash as they hit the ground and exploded. “I nearly sh-t myself,” he says. “We knew there and then that these guys were trying to kill every last one of us.” John Gorman recalls sitting in a trench while a chaplain gave him the last rites. “That’s what he thought of our chances. It was scary, I thought this is it,” he adds.

In September 1961 Carey was a 24-year-old lieutenant, Gorman a wide-eyed 17-year-old private, part of an Irish contingent of United Nations peacekeepers deployed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to stop the country descending into chaos. Even at a distance of 55 years, their voices crack with emotion as they recall how their mission turned into a battle for survival in what was Ireland’s first ever international military deployment.

What unfolded over five days in Jadotville is a little-known but astonishing story of heroism and against-all-odds soldiering, a feat of indefatigable courage that is now the subject of a major new Netflix movie, to be released this Fall.

The Siege of Jadotville, with Fifty Shades of Grey star Jamie Dornan in the lead role, tells the true story of how these 157 Irishmen, led by a tactically astute commander, routed a force of 3,000 attackers, killing 300 of them — while suffering no fatalities.

The siege of Jadotville has echoes of 1879 battle of Rorke’s Drift in Natal province, South Africa, when 150 British soldiers repelled attacks by up to 3,000 Zulu warriors. The battle was immortalized in the film Zulu.

The Congo, like many African countries in the years after the Second World War, had turned against its European ruler, Belgium, and declared independence in 1960. The new government was ill-prepared for its new role and the U.N. Security Council set up the U.N. Operation in the Congo to support it. Amid the chaos, Moise Tshombe, a Christian and anti-communist politician, supported by some Europeans, declared the resource-rich province of Katanga independent of the DRC. The U.N. forces found themselves party to a civil war between the central government and Katanga, which was also supported by Rhodesia and South Africa.

Ireland, which had only broken free from Britain in 1922, now found itself defending other newly independent states, as part of the U.N., which it had joined in 1955.

As part of the U.N. mission, Carey and Gorman’s A Company of the Irish Army’s 35th Infantry Battalion was dispatched to Jadotville, a strategic, mineral-rich town in Katanga, with orders to protect the mainly Belgian settlers.

The U.N. forces were largely based in the provincial capital of Elisabethville, 80 miles south-east of Jadotville, and initially the Irish were deployed to that city’s airport. In a move that has never been explained, two companies of U.N. peacekeepers—one Swedish and one Irish—had been hastily withdrawn from Jadotville, days before A Company was sent in.

What seemed like a simple mission, ended up in a desperate life or death fight, pitting the Irish against a well-armed enemy, which consisted of Katangan troops supported by European mercenaries and settlers who outnumbered them 20 to one.

Commandant Pat Quinlan, the wily, blunt, pipe-smoking officer in charge of A Company noted the deep levels of hostility to his men in Jadotville and began to organize a robust defensive perimeter around their base. The 42-year-old officer ordered his men to dig 1.5-metre-deep trenches, stockpile water and carry their guns at all times.

Comdt. Pat Quinlan in Jadotville, just days before the siege began, on Sept. 10, 1961.

His instincts were correct; while most of his men were at mass on September 13, the Katangans attacked, probably with the aim of taking the Irish as prisoners and using them as leverage in negotiations with the U.N.

The Katangans attacked after other U.N. forces seized Katangan positions in Elisabethville, a planned operation, which had inexplicably been kept secret from Quinlan by the U.N. command. The Katangans had also taken a key river crossing that meant the Irish were completely trapped.

The Irish were lightly armed, with 60mm mortars, Vickers machine guns, shoulder-fired anti-tank guns and Bren light machine guns. They had one truck, two jeeps and only intermittent radio communications. The Katangans had artillery and air support in a single Fouga Magister training jet.

Sergeant John Monahan was the first to see the first wave of attackers coming. He’d just finished shaving and his towel was still draped around his shoulders, but Monahan rushed to the nearest machine gun.

He opened fire and so began the battle. The Irish were hit by mortars and heavy machine gun fire and strafed lumion 9 crack - Free Activators the Fouga jet. The same airplane later dropped bombs, damaging the Irish vehicles and buildings. “As the shells and bullets rained down on us, I just thought ‘what that the f–k?’ we were supposed to be peacekeepers, now we’re all going to get killed,” Carey tells TIME.

The Katangans attacked and were driven back again and again but they were getting closer to the Irish positions. “I don’t know to this day how we did it,” says Gorman. “But Quinlan was a master tactician.”

Quinlan negotiated a series of ceasefires with the Belgian mayor of Jadotville to create time for the arrival of re-inforcements or supplies. A Norwegian pilot flew his helicopter in with water, which turned out to be contaminated but that was the U.N.’s last attempt to help the Irish. The Katangans continued to breach the ceasefire and without water and ammunition, the Irish had no choice but to surrender. They had killed 300 of their attackers and five Irish soldiers were wounded. The Irish feared for their lives after the damage they had done to their enemy but they were only held for five weeks before the U.N. could negotiate their release, and returned home in December.

There was to be no hero’s welcome. The surrender of A Company was seen by some as a national embarrassment which overshadowed the men’s courage and competence. The treatment of the Jadotville troops infuriated the soldiers and their families and led to a decades-long fight to recognize the importance of the battle.

“Jadotville was swept under the carpet,” says author and military expert Declan Power, on whose book, Siege at Jadotville, the new movie is based. “Anyone who was there was made to feel like they couldn’t talk about it. There was shame associated with it. The men should have been heroes, instead they were subject to humiliation and in some cases abuse for their involvement.”

Quinlan, from Waterville in Co. Kerry, who is played in the movie by Dornan, died in 1997, aged 78, with his achievement still unrecognized. In Jadotville, he was supported by a close-knit group of officers and NCOs who ensured that A Company stuck together during the siege. “I didn’t know Quinlan very well before the Congo, but by God, when the chips were down, he was first through the gates,” says Gorman. He adds that in later years, Quinlan never spoke about what happened in Jadotville.

Comdt. Pat Quinlan, second from right, with the Norwegian pilot Bjorne Hovden, left, and Swedish co-pilot, right, of a U.N. helicopter that landed in Jadotville under heavy fire during the battle, in an attempt to deliver water to Irish troops. A Company’s Swedish interpreter Lars Froberg is second from left.

“We were a raw, inexperienced army,” recalls Carey, who now lives in the southern Irish city of Cork. He provided Dornan with information to help the actor prepare for the role. “We had antiquated equipment, armored cars that you could probably shoot arrows through. We wore uniforms made of bull’s wool and hobnailed boots.”

Gorman didn’t even tell his mother he was going to Africa. “The first she knew of this was when she got a telegram from the Army, saying I was a prisoner,” says Gorman.“She had been praying every night for the boys in Jadotville and she had no idea I was one of them,” he recalls.

“Pat Quinlan saved our lives and now with this film, the truth has finally come out,” said the 72-year-old, who retired from the army in 1984.

Gorman and Carey stress they had small roles in a greater enterprise. “Quinlan happened to be the manager but we were a team,” says Gorman.

The campaign to gain recognition for the unit’s bravery received a boost last week; Ireland’s defense minister Paul Kehoe said the men of A Company will be honored at a ceremony in September.

The movie means the men’s actions will no longer be a forgotten detail of Irish history. Pat Quinlan’s son Leo, watched The Siege of Jadotville at a special screening in Galway in June. His son, Pat Quinlan’s grandson Conor, appears in the film.

The film is directed by Richie Smyth, an Irishman who has made videos for U2 and Bon Jovi and will be distributed by Netflix.

Leo Quinlan says he was thrilled with how sensitively and accurately his father’s story has been told. “The truth has finally been recognized. Dad would be very proud, very happy, to see the real story told at last,” he tells TIME.

Michael Kennedy, a military and diplomatic historian and author of Ireland, the United Nations and the Congo, provided some historical guidance for the movie’s script. He says: “Quinlan and his men helped to shape Ireland’s reputation today for providing well-trained, respected and, above all, resilient United Nations peacekeepers. At Jadotville, the Irish, with a small unit under very competent leadership, resisted a much larger, battle-hardened force and showed their ability and professionalism in Ireland’s first ever peacekeeping mission. Now they can finally be honored.”

The Siege of Jadotville will be available to Netflix subscribers this Fall, after a limited cinema release.

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