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Hard Disk Manager™ Advanced

This product is strictly for home use. Your computer shouldn’t be joined to a domain. For a business alternative, please explore products for Business Use.

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  • Backup Excludes
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  • “The application walks users through the steps of creating backups with a wizard. It supports creating backups of the system partition, select disks or partitions, file types, or files and folders. Backups can be stored on external devices, local volumes, network shares, or burned to optical media. The backup tool supports a handful of additional features; you need to enable advanced settings for that, and may change the compression level, backup file size limits, and password protection then.”

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Tools for expert users

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Organized and optimized storage

Next-generation partitioning functionality ensures optimal storage use. Your internal drive running low on available disk space? This dilemma often occurs when you have multiple partitions to accommodate different systems and data types. With Hard Disk Manager, you can resize partitions on the fly to maximize available storage capacity. With newly-added features, you also can undelete and merge partitions, edit and view sectors in the built-in hex editor, convert partitions into primary and logical. Easily perform a surface test to identify bad sectors of the partitions.

Live transfer your systems and data

Want to change an old HDD to a new SSD? With Hard Disk Manager, you simply choose where you want your Windows and clone your disk. Continue working on your system while Windows is being relocated. No manual operations or reboots necessary – just switch over when it’s ready. New Drive Copy functionality creates an exact, uncompressed replica of your system’s hard drive onto another drive.

Paragon Recovery Media Builder

Hard Disk Manager comes with full-fledged Paragon Recovery Media Builder to correct boot problems inflicted by logical errors, hardware malfunctions, or failures. If the system becomes corrupted or compromised — malware or ransomware reasons included — you can quickly restore full operability of system and applications with minimal data loss.

Clean up media

Wipe personal data before disposing of a hard disk. Alternatively, clean unused space only with the possibility to restore a deleted file. You know better than neglecting this simple rule.

Restore any file from backup

Restore data from backups, including an entire hard disk or its partitions, separate files or folders. Protect backups with a password. Import any backup to restore in WinPE.




Windows support

Windows 7 SP1
Windows 8
Windows 8.1
Windows 10

Basic partitioning

Create, format, delete/undelete, hide/unhide, active/inactive, assign/remove drive letter, change volume label, file system conversion (FAT to NTFS, NTFS to FAT, HFS to NTFS, NTFS to HFS), file system integrity check

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Split/merge, redistribute free space, change cluster size, convert to logical/primary, edit sectors, compact/defragment MFT, convert to MBR/GPT, change primary slots and serial number, connect VD, surface check

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Industry-class algorithms, shell integration, SSD trim, clear HDD/partition, clear free space, cleanup reports

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Copy partition, copy entire disk, migrate operating system


Back up an entire system, volumes and files, scheduled backup, incremental and differential imaging, backup encryption and compression, backup data excludes, verify backup data viability, pVHD, VHD, VHDX, VMDK containers support


Restore an entire hard disk or its partitions, separate files or folders from existing backup jobs, isolated backup containers or legacy PBF images. Restore to the original or new location, restore with resizing, import backup jobs to manage in WinPE

Backup automation

View/edit backup jobs, unlimited number of jobs

Recovery Environments

Recovery Media Builder with drivers injection and pre-mounted network connection capabilities during setup helps to prepare bootable (uEFI and BIOS-compatible) Windows PE or Linux USB sticks or ISO images to use the product utilities on bare metal machines or when OS is down

E-Mail Notifications

Set up the program to notify you by e-mail about successful completion and/or failure of operations

Auxiliary utilities

  • File Transfer Wizard to copy files between storages formatted to Windows, macOS and Linux file systems and/or burn them to CD/DVD; replace corrupted data from previously created backups.
  • Boot Corrector to fix problems inflicted by logical errors, hardware Advanced Installer Architect 16.5 Serial Key, or failures.

Supported Technology

Computer bus interfaces
Complete uEFI support
Parallel ATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment)
SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment)
External SATA (eSATA)
USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.x/2.0/3.0
IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
All types of RAIDs (hardware and software)
PC or PCMCIA Card (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association)
2.2TB+ hard disk drives
AFD (Advanced Format Drive)
Non-512B sector size drives
SSD (Solid State Drive)
Partitioning schema
Windows Storage Spaces Support
MBR (Master Boot Record)
GPT (GUID-Partition Table)
Microsoft Dynamic Disk
File systems
NTFS (v1.2, v3.0, v3.1)
FAT16, FAT32
Linux Ext2FS, Linux Ext3FS, Linux Ext4FS, Linux Swap
Apple HFS+
Other file systems (in the sector-by-sector mode)
With BitLocker encrypted hard disks

Frequently Asked Questions

Can I use your product on the latest Windows 10 Creators Update?
Of course! Hard Disk Manager is fully compatible with the latest operating system.
Can I use cloud storage as backup destination?
Absolutely, most cloud Advanced Installer Architect 16.5 Serial Key providers support WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning), a communication protocol based on HTTP 1.1 that provides a framework for users to create, modify, and move files to a remote server. All you need is to mount cloud storage as a network volume in the system via WebDAV and configure Hard Disk Manager to use it. For more information, please consult our best practice called “Backup to Cloud with Backup & Recovery 16.”
What RAID configuration does your product support?
Hard Disk Manager supports all types of software and hardware RAID configuration with only one restriction: Your RAID should already be set up and recognized by your OS as a single disk. For more information, please consult Knowledge Base.
My SATA/RAID controller is not recognized by the WinPE recovery media.
You should have already injected drivers for a controller during the creation of the recovery media, which is a recommended one-time procedure. For more information, please consult Product Manual and Knowledge Base.
Does your product support Microsoft Dynamic Disks?
Full support of this proprietary technology is not yet available from any third-party vendor, as Microsoft has yet to make available the proper documentation. Hard Disks Manager provides limited support for MBR dynamic disks. GPT dynamic disks are NOT supported. For more information, please consult Knowledge Base.
Can I change the layout of BitLocker-encrypted volumes?
No, Hard Disk Manager doesn’t allow changing the layout for this volume type. However, you can back up, restore, copy, and perform additional actions with unlocked BDE volumes. An unlocked BDE volume is a volume encrypted with BitLocker, which is open for access (password or recovery key is provided). For more information, please consult Knowledge Base.
Windows asks for activation after copying to another storage device.
Microsoft requires all changes in hardware devices to be tracked by the Windows operating system. As such, Hard Disk Manager is unable to circumvent this requirement.



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Darwin (operating system)

Computer operating system

"Darwin (kernel)" redirects here. For the article about the kernel, see XNU.

DeveloperApple Inc.
Written inC, C++, Objective-C, assembly language
OS familyUnix-like,[1][2]BSD[3]
Working stateCurrent
Source modelOpen source
Initial releaseNovember 15, 2000; 21 years ago (2000-11-15)
Latest release21.0.0 / June 7, 2021; 5 months ago (2021-06-07)
PlatformsCurrent: x86-64, 64-bit ARM, 32-bit ARM (32-bit ARM support is closed-source)
Historical: PowerPC (32-bit and 64-bit), IA-32
Kernel typeHybrid
user interface
Command-line interface (Unix shell)
LicenseMostly Apple Public Source License (APSL), with closed-source drivers[4]

Darwin is an open-sourceUnix-likeoperating system first released by Apple Inc. in 2000. It is composed of code derived from NeXTSTEP, BSD, Mach, and other free software projects' code, as well as code developed by Apple.

Darwin forms the Unix-based core set of components upon which macOS (previously OS X and Mac OS X), iOS, watchOS, tvOS, iPadOS and bridgeOS are based. It is mostly POSIX-compatible, but has never, by itself, been certified as compatible with any version of POSIX. Starting with Leopard, macOS has been certified as compatible with the Single UNIX Specification version 3 (SUSv3).[5][6][7]


The heritage of Darwin began with Unix derivatives supplemented by aspects of NeXT's NeXTSTEP operating system (later, since version 4.0, known as OPENSTEP), first released in 1989. After Apple bought NeXT in 1997, it announced it would base its next operating system on OPENSTEP. This was developed into Rhapsody in 1997, Mac OS X Server 1.0 in 1999, Mac OS X Public Beta in 2000, and Mac OS X 10.0 in 2001.

In 1999, Apple announced it would release the Mach 2.5 microkernel, BSD Unix 4.4 OS, and the Apache Web server components of Mac OS X Server.[8] At the time, interim CEOSteve Jobs alluded to BritishnaturalistCharles Darwin by announcing "because Advanced Installer Architect 16.5 Serial Key about evolution".[9] In 2000, the core operating system components of Mac OS X were released as open-source software under the Apple Public Source License (APSL) as Darwin; the higher-level components, such as the Cocoa and Carbon frameworks, remained closed-source.

Up to Darwin 8.0.1, Apple released a binary installer (as an ISO image) after each major Mac OS X release that allowed one to install Darwin on PowerPC and Intel x86 systems as a standalone operating system.[10] Minor updates were released as packages that were installed separately. Darwin is now only available as source code.

Simplified history of Unix-likeoperating systems


Diagram of macOS architecture


Main article: XNU

The kernel of Darwin is XNU, a hybrid kernel which uses OSFMK 7.3[11] (Open Software Foundation Mach Kernel) from the OSF, various elements of FreeBSD (including the process model, network stack, and virtual file system),[12] and an object-oriented device driverAPI called I/O Kit.[13] The hybrid kernel design provides the flexibility of a microkernel[14][failed verification – see discussion] and the performance of a monolithic kernel.[15]

Hardware and software support[edit]

Darwin currently includes support for the 64-bitx86-64 variant of the Intel x86processors used in Intel-based Macs and the 64-bit ARM processors used in the iPhone 5S and later, the 6th generation iPod Touch, the 7th generation iPad and later, the iPad Air family, the iPad Mini 2 and later, the iPad Pro family, the fourth generation and later Apple TVs, the HomePod family, and Little Snitch Crack 5.2.2 & Product Key [Latest] 2021 with Apple silicon such as the 2020 Apple M1 Macs. An open-source port of the XNU kernel exists that supports Darwin on Intel and AMD x86 platforms not officially supported by Apple, though it does not appear to have been updated since 2009.[16] An open-source port of the XNU kernel also exists for ARM platforms.[17] Older versions supported some or all of 32-bit PowerPC, 64-bit PowerPC, 32-bit x86, and 32-bit ARM.

It supports the POSIX API by way of its BSD lineage (largely FreeBSDuserland) and a large number of programs written for various other UNIX-like systems can be compiled on Darwin with no changes to the source code.

Darwin does not include many of the defining elements of macOS, such as the Carbon and Cocoa APIs or the Quartz Compositor and Aqua user interface, and thus cannot run Mac applications. It does, however, support a number of lesser-known features of macOS, such as mDNSResponder, which is the multicastDNS responder and a core component of the Bonjour networking technology, and launchd, an advanced service managementframework.


In July 2003, Apple released Darwin under version 2.0 of the Apple Public Source License (APSL), which the Free Software Foundation (FSF) classifies as a free software license incompatible with the GNU General Public License.[18] Previous versions were released under an earlier version of the APSL license, which did not meet the FSF definition of free software, although it did meet the requirements of the Open Source Definition.[19]

Release history[edit]

The following is a table of major Darwin releases with their dates of release and their corresponding macOS releases.[20] Note that the corresponding macOS release may have been released on a different date; refer to the macOS pages for those dates.

Version Date Corresponding releases Notes
0.1 March 16, 1999 Mac OS X Server 1.0 releases
  • Initial release
  • 0.1 is contrived (for sorting and identification) as this identified itself simply as Rhapsody 5.3
0.2 April 14, 1999 Mac OS X Server 1.0.1
0.3 August 5, 1999 Based on Rhapsody 5.5
  • ISO image is available on
  • After this point the kernel changed from the NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP/Rhapsody to the newer XNU for Mac OS X
1.0 April 12, 2000 Developer preview 3
1.1 April 5, 2000 Developer preview 4
1.2.1 November 15, 2000 Mac OS X Public Beta (code-named "Kodiak")
1.3.1 April 13, 2001 Mac OS X v10.0 (code-named "Cheetah")
  • First commercial release of Darwin
  • All releases of Cheetah (v10.0.0–4) had the same version of Darwin.
1.4.1 October 2, 2001 Mac OS X v10.1 (code-named "Puma")
  • Performance improvements to "boot time, real-time threads, thread management, cache flushing, and preemption handling"
  • Support for SMB network file system
  • Wget replaced with cURL.[21]
5.1 November 12, 2001 Mac OS X v10.1.1
  • Change in numbering scheme to match the Mac OS X build numbering scheme
5.5 June 5, 2002 Mac OS X v10.1.5
6.0.1 September 23, 2002 Mac OS X v10.2 (code-named "Jaguar")
6.8 October 3, 2003 Mac OS X v10.2.8
7.0 October 24, 2003 Mac OS X PantherMac OS X v10.3.0
7.9 April 15, 2005 Mac OS X v10.3.9
8.0 April 29, 2005 Mac OS X v10.4.0
8.11 November 14, 2007 Mac OS X v10.4.11
9.0 October 26, 2007 Mac OS X v10.5.0
  • iPhone OS 1 support in Darwin 9.0.0d1
  • Full POSIX compliance, improved hierarchical process scheduling model, dynamically allocatedswap files, dynamic resource limits (for files and processes), process sandboxing, address space layout randomization, DTracetracing framework, file system events daemon, directoryhard links
  • Apache 1.3 and PHP 4 updated to Apache 2.2 and PHP 5, read-only ZFS support.[25]
  • First Darwin core used for iPhone devices.
9.8 August 5, 2009 Mac OS X v.10.5.8
10.0 August 28, 2009 Mac OS X v10.6.0
10.8 June 23, 2011 Mac OS X v10.6.8
11.0.0 July 20, 2011 Mac OS X v10.7.0
  • XNU no longer supports PPC binaries (fat binary only for i386, x86_64).
  • XNU requires an x86_64 processor, except for iOS which is ARM based.
  • Improved sandboxing of applications
  • Complete support for Automatic Reference Counting
11.4.2 October 4, 2012 Mac OS X v10.7.5 (supplemental)
12.0.0 February 16, 2012 OS X Mountain LionOS X v10.8.0
12.6.0 January 27, 2015 OS X v10.8.5 (with Security Update 2015-001)
13.0.0 June 11, 2013 OS X v10.9.0
13.4.0 September 17, 2014 OS X v10.9.5
14.0.0 September 18, 2014 OS X v10.10.0
14.5.0 August 13, 2015 OS X v10.10.5
15.0.0 September 16, 2015 OS X v10.11.0 and iOS 9.0
  • System Integrity Protection. Protects certain system parts from being modified or tampered with by a process even if run by root or by a user with root privileges.
  • sudo is configured with the "tty_tickets" flag by default, restricting the session timeout to the terminal session (such as a window or tab) in which the user authenticated the program.
  • LibreSSL replaces OpenSSL
15.6.0 July 18, 2016 OS X v10.11.6 and iOS 9.3.3
16.0.0 September 13, 2016 macOS v10.12.0 and iOS 10.0.1 (initial release version)
  • OS X was rebranded into macOS.
  • Writing to directory is now restricted to root user or any user with root privileges
  • System Integrity Protection now covers directory that contains a list of applications that are allowed to "control the computer"
  • Objective-Cgarbage collector removed and replaced by Automatic Reference Counting that was introduced with Darwin v12.0 (OS X v10.8). Objective-C applications that use garbage collection will no longer work.
  • Native support for PPTP was removed.
16.5.0 March 27, 2017 macOS v10.12.4 and iOS 10.3
  • Changed filesystem from HFS+ to APFS on iOS devices. APFS is already available on macOS since 10.12.0 but can't be used on boot partition.
16.6.0 July 19, 2017 macOS v10.12.6 and iOS 10.3.3
17.0.0 September 19, 2017
  • APFS replaces HFS+ as the default filesystem for boot partition in macOS on Macs with flash storage. On Macs with HDDs, the boot partition must be reformatted to use APFS.
  • ntpd replaced by timed as a time synchronization service
  • FTP and telnet commands are removed.
  • Kernel extensions ("kexts") will require explicit approval by the user before being able to run.
17.5.0 March 29, 2018 macOS 10.13.4
  • Support for external graphics processors using Thunderbolt 3, and removes support for external graphics processors using Thunderbolt 1 and 2.
17.6.0 June 1, 2018 macOS v10.13.5
17.7.0 July 9, 2018 macOS v10.13.6 and iOS 11.4.1
18.0.0 September 24, 2018
18.2.0 October 30, 2018 macOS v10.14.1 and iOS 12.1
  • Added support for the new Radeon Vega 20 GPUs in the new MacBooks
19.0.0 September 19, 2019
19.2.0 December 10, 2019 macOS 10.15.2 and iOS 13.3
19.3.0 January 28, 2020 macOS 10.15.3 and iOS 13.3.1
  • System Extensions replace Kexts and runs in userspace, outside of the kernel.[28]
  • DriverKit replaces I/O Kit. It Introduces "Dexts" (Driver Extensions) which are built using DriverKit. Driverkit is a new SDK with all new frameworks based on IOKit, but is updated and modernized. Device Drivers run in userspace, outside of the kernel.[29][30][31]
19.4.0 March 24, 2020
19.5.0 April 30, 2020 macOS 10.15.5 and iOS 13.5
19.6.0 June 1, 2020 macOS 10.15.6 beta 2 and iOS 13.6.0 beta 2
20.0.0 June 22, 2020 macOS 11.0 beta 1 and iOS 14.0 beta 1
20.1.0 September 3, 2020 macOS 11.0 and iOS 14.0
20.2.0 November 12, 2020 macOS 11.1 and iOS 14.3
20.3.0 February 1, 2021 macOS 11.2, iOS 14.4, iPadOS 14.4, watchOS 7.3 and tvOS 14.4.
20.4.0 April 20, 2021 macOS 11.3, iOS 14.5, iPadOS 14.5, watchOS 7.4 and tvOS 14.5.
20.5.0 May 24, 2021 macOS 11.4 and iOS 14.6
20.6.0 June 2, 2021 macOS 11.5 beta 2 and iOS 14.7 beta 2
21.0.0 June 7, 2021 macOS 12.0 beta 1 and iOS 15.0 beta 1

The jump in version numbers from Darwin 1.4.1 to 5.1 with the release of Mac OS X v10.1.1 was designed to tie Darwin to the Mac OS X version and build numbering system, which in turn is inherited from NeXTSTEP. In the build numbering system of macOS, every version has a unique beginning build number, which identifies what whole version of macOS it is part of. Mac OS X v10.0 had build numbers starting with 4, 10.1 had build numbers starting with 5, and so forth (earlier build numbers represented developer releases).[32]

The command uname -r in Terminal will show the Darwin version number ("20.3.0"), and the command uname -v will show the XNU build version string, which includes the Darwin version number. The command sw_vers will show the corresponding ProductName ("macOS"), the ProductVersion number ("11.2.3") and the BuildVersion string ("20D91").

Derived projects[edit]

Due to the free software nature of Darwin, there have been projects that aim to modify or enhance the operating system.


GNOMErunning on OpenDarwin

OpenDarwin was a community-led operating system based on the Darwin system. It was founded in April 2002 by Apple Inc. and Internet Systems Consortium. Its goal was to increase collaboration between Apple developers and the free software community. Apple benefited from the project because improvements to OpenDarwin would be incorporated into Darwin releases; and the free/open source community benefited from being given complete control over its own operating system, which could then be used in free software distributions such as GNU-Darwin.[33]

On July 25, 2006, the OpenDarwin team announced that the project was shutting down, as they felt OpenDarwin had "become a mere hosting facility for Mac OS X related projects", and that the efforts to create a standalone Darwin operating system had failed. They also state: "Availability of sources, interaction with Apple representatives, difficulty building and tracking sources, and a lack of interest from the community have all contributed to this."[34] The last stable release was version 7.2.1, released on July 16, 2004.[35]


PureDarwin is a project to create a bootable operating system image from Apple's released source code for Darwin.[36] Since the cessation of OpenDarwin and the release of bootable images since Darwin 8.x, it has been increasingly difficult to create a full operating system as many components become closed source. In 2015 the project created a preview release based on Darwin 9 with an X11 GUI,[37] followed by a command-line only 17.4 Beta based on Darwin 17.[38]

Other derived projects[edit]

  • MacPorts (formerly DarwinPorts), Fink, and Homebrew are projects to port UNIX programs to the Darwin operating system and provide package management. In addition, several standard UNIX package managers—such as RPM, pkgsrc, and Portage—have Darwin ports. Some of these operate in their own namespace so as not to interfere with the base system.
  • GNU-Darwin is a project that ports packages of free software to Darwin. They package OS images in a way similar to a Linux distribution.
  • The Darwine project was a port of Wine that allows one to run Microsoft Windows software on Darwin.
  • SEDarwin is a port of TrustedBSDmandatory access control framework and portions of the SELinux framework to Darwin.[39] It was incorporated into Mac OS X 10.5.[40]
  • The Darbat project is an experimental port of Darwin to the L4 microkernel family. It aims to be binary compatible with existing Darwin binaries.[41]
  • The Darling project is a compatibility layer for running macOS binaries on Linux systems. It uses some Darwin source code.[42]
  • There are various projects that focus on driver support: e.g., wireless drivers,[43][44] wired NIC drivers[45][46][47] modem drivers,[48] card readers,[49] and the ext2 and ext3 file systems.[50][51]

See also[edit]


  1. ^"Kernel Architecture Overview". Kernel Programming Guide.
  2. ^"darwin-xnu/ at master". Archived from the original on March 31, 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  3. ^"Apple - Public Source - Darwin FAQ". Archived from the original on November 19, 2004. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
  4. ^"Binary Drivers required for PureDarwin". Archived from the original on November 18, 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2009.
  5. ^"Mac OS X Leopard - Technology - UNIX". Leopard Technology Overview. Apple Inc. Archived from the original on December 27, 2008.
  6. ^The Open Group (May 18, 2007). "Mac OS X Version 10.5 Leopard on Intel-based Macintosh computers certification". Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  7. ^"macOS version 10.13 High Sierra on Intel-based Mac computers". The Open Group. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
  8. ^Walsh, Jeff (March 22, 1999). "Apple goes open source with key OS components". InfoWorld. Vol. 21 no. 12. IDG InfoWorld. p. 40. Retrieved February 17, 2020.
  9. ^Kahney, Leander. "Apple Opens OS Code". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved February 17, 2020.
  10. ^"Apple ISO download directory". Archived from the original on October 7, 2016.
  11. ^Jim Magee. WWDC 2000 Session 106 - Mac OS X: Kernel. 14 minutes in.
  12. ^"Mac Technology Overview: Kernel and Device Drivers Layer". Apple Developer Connection. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  13. ^Singh, Amit (January 7, 2004). "XNU: The Kernel". Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  14. ^Roch, Benjamin. "Monolithic kernel vs. Microkernel". CiteSeerX
  15. ^"Additional Features". Porting UNIX/Linux Applications to Advanced Installer Architect 16.5 Serial Key X. Apple Inc.
  16. ^"Voodoo XNU Kernel Source". Requires an Apache SVN client.
  17. ^"XNU on ARMv7".
  18. ^"FSF's Opinion of the Apple Public Source License (APSL) 2.0".
  19. ^"The Problems with older versions of the Apple Public Source License (APSL)".
  20. ^"Open Source Releases". Apple Developer Connection. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  21. ^"Technical Note TN2029: Mac OS X v10.1". Apple Developer Connection. Archived from the original on November 14, 2001.
  22. ^Siracusa, John (September 5, 2002). "Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 31, 2008.
  23. ^Siracusa, John (November 9, 2003). "Mac OS X 10.3 Panther". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 31, 2008.
  24. ^Siracusa, John (April 28, 2005). "Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  25. ^Siracusa, John (October 28, 2007). "Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard: the Ars Technica review". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
  26. ^Siracusa, John (August 31, 2009). "Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard: the Ars Technica review". Ars Technica. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
  27. ^As found on a jailbrokeniPhone 4S
  28. ^
  29. ^"SystemExtensions". Apple Developer Documentation.
  30. ^"DriverKit". Apple Developer Documentation.
  31. ^System Extensions and DriverKit. Apple Developer Documentation.
  32. ^Prabhakar, Ernie (November 9, 2001). "Darwin Version - New Scheme in Software Update 1". darwin-development (Mailing list). Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  33. ^"OpenDarwin". OpenDarwin Project. Archived from the original on January 6, 2006.
  34. ^OpenDarwin Core Team and Administrators (July 25, 2006). "OpenDarwin Shutting Down". OpenDarwin Project. Archived from the original on August 4, 2006.
  35. ^"OpenDarwin 7.2.1 Released". August 5, 2004. Archived from the original on August 5, 2004. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  36. ^"PureDarwin".
  37. ^PureDarwin Xmas (2015)
  38. ^"PureDarwin 17.4 Beta". GitHub. PureDarwin. November 30, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2020.
  39. ^"Security Enhanced Darwin". SEDarwin. January 22, 2007. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011.
  40. ^"What's New In Mac OS X: Mac OS X v10.5". Mac OS X Reference Library. Apple Inc. November 13, 2009. Archived from the original on December 8, 2009.
  41. ^"L4/Darwin (aka Darbat)". May 9, 2007. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013.
  42. ^"Darling: macOS translation layer for Linux". Retrieved January 11, 2020.
  43. ^yuriwho (May 5, 2002). "WirelessDriver Home Page". Retrieved July 12, 2010.
  44. ^"iwi2200 Darwin". SourceForge. March 27, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  45. ^"Port BSD tulip driver(s) to Darwin OS | Download Port BSD tulip driver(s) to Darwin OS software for free at". Retrieved July 12, 2010.
  46. ^"RealTek network driver for Mac OS X/Darwin". SourceForge. March 15, 2006. Retrieved June 3, 2010.Project inactive since March 15, 2006.
  47. ^fansui; et al. (August 1, 2007). "RTL8150LMEthernet". SourceForge. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  48. ^"ZyXEL Modem Drivers for OS X/Darwin | Download ZyXEL Modem Drivers for OS X/Darwin software for free at". May 14, 2002. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
  49. ^"Mac OS X PC Card ATA Driver". December 20, 2001. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
  50. ^"Mac OS X Ext2 Filesystem | Download Mac OS X Ext2 Filesystem software for free at". October 14, 2002. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
  51. ^"ext2 filesystem in user space". SourceForge. July 14, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2010.

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Advanced Installer 18.8.1 Crack + Key Free Download 2022

Advanced Installer 18.8.1 Crackis an easy-to-use Windows Installer authoring tool, enabling programmers to create. Easy to use, powerful, fast, and lightweight. Advanced Installer simplifies the process by providing building Windows Installer packages, and ports. The program implements all of Windows Installer fundamentals and follows the advocated practices. With this port, making a Windows Installer package will need just a few minutes. Initiate the program, add a few files, change the name, and you are finished. No transmissions to learn, no conventions to attend.

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Advanced Installer Crack Download is an application for generating installation files. This program lets you build Installer packages based on. Advanced Installer Architect published and has been created in 5 variations Enterprise, Professional, Java, Free, and Architecture. Advanced Installer Crack is Published below a flexible licensing model. The center software is 100% free to use for the two industrial and non-commercial functions. Also, we provide attributes. Advanced Installer comprises a user-friendly graphical performance, along with finish and diverse roles. With its help, you can construct setup packages meeting with no knowledge criteria economically, together with all the Windows Installers. Since it is also based on program virtualization/deployment engineering.

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Advanced Installer Download 2022 You can add product information (name, brand, company name) as well as product support information (URL, contact, description) and make the software feature available. Additionally, you can select the registry and installation options (such as package type, restart behavior), and you can add a digital signature to the collection. The promotional service allows users to register and update old product types. You can allow the program to install different types of products on one page and then automatically update the old version. You can also specify the serial number, trial period, and authorization key in your application. Requirements to the mode specified by the installer while running, collecting files, folders, Java products, and directories, selecting file associations, and then customizing services and applications.

Advanced Installer Key is probably used for programs that are financially registered/activated and were put up to create registered versions of the program. Only, a couple of minutes will be taken by making a Windows Installer package. Initiate the application to change the name, hit the Build catch, and you finish. It’s likely to include subtle item elements (e.g., name, adaptation, reinforce data), make the program consequently overhaul more old item kinds or allow alongside each other institution, indicate that the establishment envelope and bundle write (32 or perhaps 64-bit), and include provisions for the installer to function. For example, move, evacuate, or contain manners, you can perform listing management tasks.

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Advanced Installer Key is a professional software developed for Windows Installer package commands. This tool has useful features and modern applications to help you create your installation package. A special installer can only extract MSI files, so it cannot create EXE applications or other packages. This program gathers all the necessary functions to create the installation package, as well as displays the functions in the main window, so the whole process looks like a cake. This program has a search engine that allows users to quickly monitor their work.

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The paperless office is back again! (But only because print hardware supplies are jammed)

The Paperless Office strategy might be working finally . but only because print vendors can't make enough hardware to satisfy demand.

Unit sales of inkjet and laser printers fell collectively by 21.5 per cent year on year to 4.07 million units in calendar Q3, according to stats compiled by IDC – that is 1.12 million fewer printers than were shifted into channels in the same period of 2020.

Production constraints and logistics issues impeded shipment volumes, and led to a 19.5 per cent drop in the inkjet segment; consumer inkjet machines fell 19.9 per cent and business models were down 16.1 per cent.

The laser market plunged 27.1 per cent and all areas of the A4, A3, monochrome, column, printer and multifunction printer (MFP) sectors declined by double digits, ostensibly wiping out any gains seen in the first half of 2021.

"Most brands are suffering from inventory issues and this ultimately affects revenues and profits, with feeling the effects more than others," says Phil Sergeant, program director at IDC in a statement.

Konica Minolta recently revised its full-year guidance, cutting its operating profit forecast by a third due to the "tight supply of semiconductors and other materials" that will limit the supply of products flowing from its Digital Workplace Business. This was compounded by an "explosion accident" at its toner plants that shut it down, meaning total production volumes will be at 75 per cent of estimated demand.

The need for printing devices and toner during the pandemic, caused by home working and home schooling, went through the roof, said IDC. This level of demand has moderated, yet some orders remain unfulfilled, said Sergeant.

Shipments declined in Germany by 16.5 per cent to circa 900,000 units – roughly 83,000 lower than a year ago. France was down more than 27 per cent to 759,000 and the UK dropped nearly 24 per cent to 682,000. Italy dropped 23.7 per cent to 516,000 units and Spain was down by the same percentage got 306,000.

In the first half of this year, the printer market rebounded in Western Europe, growing 18.9 per cent to 5.15 million units in Q1, and 18.8 per cent in Q2 to 4.39 million units.

Some 450 billion fewer pages were printed in 2020 because of COVID-19 disruption, that represents a plunge of 14 per cent to 2.8 trillion pages. Those print volumes are not expected to reach the same levels again. ®


Parallels Desktop Crack with Activation Key Free Download 2022

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Parallels Desktop Crack allows Microsoft Windows, Linux and Google Chrome operating system and applications to run on an Apple Mac.This software integrates guest OS (OS) and Mac OS X to enable native OS X performance.Parallels Desktop Mac is hardware emulator virtualization software. It uses hypervisor technology to map the hardware resources on the host computer directly with the resources of the virtual machine. This version comes with full-featured DVD / CD drives.

Parallels Desktop Activation Key is compatible with all Windows versions since Windows 2000. It also supports all Intel-based MacOS versions (with a few licensing exemptions). There are also many Linux, BSD and Solaris versions.Virtual machines work exactly like a single computer, with almost all the same resources as a physical one.You can keep the macOS appearance or use the familiar Windows desktop to use Google Drive, Dropbox or OneDrive and other cloud services.

Guests can use the same hardware drivers on all guest virtual machines, regardless of whether they are running on the host machine. This makes instances of virtual machines highly portable.Parallels Key Free 2022 has invested over 25 man-years in engineering programming to fully take advantage of the macOS Big Sur architecture. Parallels Desktop, however, is only available to Mac users. A running virtual machine can be stopped and copied to another computer.

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You can switch between Windows and Mac applications, launch Windows apps from your Mac’s dock, and use Mac gestures within your Windows applications.The Touch Bar on Windows allows you to copy, paste or drag-and-drop between Windows and Mac.Parallels Crack Download generator is easy to use.The built-in wizard makes it easy to install Windows 10.VirtualBox and VMware Fusion are more flexible, and can run historical oddities such as OS / 2 or NeXTSTEP.

The powerful performance allows you to run Windows applications such as Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office, and Advanced Installer Architect 16.5 Serial Key. You can also use more advanced applications such as Microsoft Visual Studio or Adobe Photoshop with the same speed.This modality lets users resize and resize virtual machines that run under Mac OS. Parallels Desktop for Mac Free Download Crack is not available for Mac. VirtualBox and VMware Fusion can be run on both Windows and Linux computers.

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They allow you to burn CD / DVDs directly in the virtual environment. You can also play any copy-protected DVD or CD like under Mac OS X. The redesigned kernel extensions have been incorporated into Parallels Keygen 2022 Free and provide our customers with the best Windows-on Mac performance, “said Nick Dobrovolskiy. Parallels Senior Vice President for Engineering and Support.

Your Mac will run graphically and resource-intensive Windows apps seamlessly without any slowdown.You can run the most complex applications such as Adobe Photoshop, Visual Studio SketchUp, AutoDesk Revit, and Visual Studio.Parallels Activation Key Free detects everything you need to get going so you can be up-and-running in no time!You will be asked to install Windows 10 if you require Windows.

Version 2.5 added support for USB 2.0 devices. This increased the number of native speed USB devices that are supported.The guest operating system now has 32MB of video RAM. The latest version ofParallels Desktop Crack Free Download is available in three different modes.Coherence mode allows guest and Mac applications to run in the same window.In full screen mode, a full guest desktop can be created.

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  • Boot Camp works with it: You can reuse your Boot Camp installation. Parallels desktop 15 crack is simple to convert a Boot Camp virtual computer. Follow our instructions to install Boot Camp virtual machines.
  • Volume license key: It provides a common volume key, central license management, and advanced security features. You can easily adjust your Windows, Linux or Ubuntu installation.
  • Parallel ToolboxBonus: 30+ one-touch tools to clean up your drive, take screenshots, download a video and much more. Use parallels free activation key as all with one click. You can choose your view. Make Windows invisible and continue using the applications in coherence mode.
  • Flexibility: Compatible with OS X, Windows 10, 8.1, 7, Linux, Unix, and macOS Server.No longer do you have to choose between Mac or PC.
  • One-click tuning: Select Productivity, Gaming or Software Testing to optimize your VM settings. Windows can be set to fill the entire screen if you are new to Mac. It looks as though it’s using Windows PCs.
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  • Parallels Desktop 16 Crack supports dark mode.Additional Mojave features are currently in development and will be tested and finalized before being released as part of the Mojave release.
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  • Windows 8 and later can now use more than 2GB of Mac system memory to support graphics. Windows apps can still use this new mode whenever they are available. You must first update Parallels tools to enable this feature.
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Parallels Desktop 16.5 review: Windows comes to Apple Silicon (sort of)

After sixteen major releases, you might think there’s not much left to be added to Parallels Desktop – and for the vast majority of Mac users who are still using Intel CPUs, there isn’t. For them, this update to the popular virtualisation software tidies up a few bugs and adds support for the latest version of the Linux kernel, but that’s largely it. Overall it’s not even consequential enough to Advanced Installer Architect 16.5 Serial Key a full ticking up of the version number. 

Yet arguably, this is the most significant release of Parallels Desktop since it first appeared in 2006. Just as version one unlocked the potential of Apple’s then-recent switch to the Intel architecture, this one breaks new ground by allowing you to install and run Windows 10 on Apple Silicon. 

It’s an enticing prospect, but not quite as straightforward as it sounds. It would be a huge technical challenge to get a standard x86 build of Windows 10 running on Apple’s ARM-based M1 chip, and Parallels doesn’t attempt it. Rather, the focus is on Microsoft’s own port of Windows 10 for ARM processors. With Parallels Desktop, you can now run Windows on ARM (WoA) in a VM on the M1 platform – and since the OS itself includes an Intel translation layer, it opens Advanced Installer Architect 16.5 Serial Key door to running a huge range of Windows apps on the latest Macs. 

The catch is that while Parallels Desktop may be ready for WoA, the OS itself is still a work in progress. Early versions have trickled out on a handful of lightweight laptops – notably Microsoft’s own Surface Pro X – but the only way to get an installer for your Mac is via the free Windows Insider programme, which means you can expect beta-quality code with no guarantees of performance or stability. 

Parallels Desktop 16.5 review: Setup

Virtualisation can be a complicated business, but Parallels makes it pretty painless. Once you’ve installed the Parallels Desktop app on an M1-powered Mac, it prompts you to pick a guest OS, with helpful links to ready-to-roll images for Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, Debian 10.7, Fedora Workstation 33-1.2, and Kali Linux 2021.1. This is a nice spread of options to have, but we doubt many people are really buying Parallels to run Linux, especially inside a host OS that’s already built on UNIX. 

Parallels Desktop 16.5

Happily, installing Windows is almost as easy. Microsoft provides the WoA installer in the form of a VHDX image file, which you can simply drag onto the Parallels window and boot to kick off the installation. There’s nothing to customise on the OS side; accept the default settings in Parallels and you’ll be looking at a Windows 10 desktop in no more than ten minutes. 

Parallels Desktop 16.5 review: Compatibility and features

Once you’ve got past the thrill of seeing Windows boot up on your Mac desktop, the experience is pretty anticlimactic. WoA looks and feels exactly like regular Windows 10, and it works like it too: initial releases were limited to running 32-bit code, but that restriction is now gone, and we were able to install and use a whole stack of industry-standard apps and tools with zero fuss, including Chrome, Office, Photoshop, 7-Zip and Zoom. We’re not saying it necessarily makes sense to run these apps in Parallels, but they illustrate how broadly Windows on ARM can stand in for the x86 edition.

Anything in the Microsoft Store ought to work too, since WoA fully implements the UWP framework, and any other required resources should come bundled into the installation package. In fact, when we tried to set up the Dropbox client, the regular installer detected a platform error and smartly directed me to install the Store edition instead, which worked perfectly. 

As usual with VMs, Windows appears as a desktop in a window, but with a click you can enable Parallels’ signature Coherence mode. This lets Windows applications float freely among your Mac windows, and puts their icons in the Dock alongside native apps. Your personal folders in Windows are mapped directly to their Mac equivalents, helping to smooth out cross-platform workflows, and you can even copy and paste text and images between Windows apps and Mac ones. 

This being a virtual machine, you can also take snapshots of your Windows system whenever you like, and roll back to previous states at will. This could be useful if you just need to use Windows from time to time to accomplish a specific task, and don’t want to worry about unwanted cruft or malware accumulating over time. 

Parallels Desktop 16.5

Parallels Desktop 16.5 review: Hitches and hurdles

Parallels makes a good go of integrating Windows apps into the Mac environment, but some dissonance is unavoidable. For example, apps from different platforms have their window controls at opposite corners, and the modifier keys on the standard Mac keyboard are in a different order to Windows, which tends to mess with our brain. We don’t see that there’s a better solution, but it’s not ideal. 

And while WoA works remarkably well with modern apps, older software is more hit and miss. For example, we normally use an ageing edition of MAGIX Sound Forge 11 for our everyday audio editing tasks; this works perfectly well on our “real” Windows 10 desktop, but it refused to install in WoA, complaining that a DLL couldn’t be registered. We tried to roll back further to version 9, but this demanded the .NET Framework 2.0, and our attempts to install it were rewarded only with error codes. 

The connecting together of the Mac and Windows file systems can confuse some apps too. Macrium Reflect couldn’t handle the fact that our Desktop folder wasn’t located on a real hard disk and crashed at the very start of the installation. On that note, anything that requires bespoke hardware drivers is likely to struggle too. 

This sort of thing matters, because one of the most common use cases for virtualisation is to keep alive legacy software that’s not supported on the new OS. It’s not at all surprising if apps from the XP or Windows 7 era don’t work on this whole new architecture, but it is a shame. 

And don’t forget that the OS is, at present, an Insider release. This means it receives large, frequent updates, sometimes on a daily basis. FastStone Image Viewer Crack possible that new builds will progressively make more apps and devices work in WoA, but they may also unpredictably change and even break things. 

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Parallels Desktop 16.5 review: Performance

By default, Parallels Desktop allocates two of the M1’s eight processor cores to your virtual WoA machine, along with 3GB of RAM. You can raise it to a maximum of four CPU cores and 8GB of RAM – or higher if you’ve sprung for a Pro subscription – but doing so inevitably leaves fewer resources for macOS. However you slice it, it’s not exactly a recipe for peak performance. 

On top of that, most of the programs you’re currently likely to want to run in Windows are going to have to go through Intel emulation, and this drags performance down enormously. We used Parallels Desktop to run our standard benchmark suite on WoA on an 8GB Mac Mini, and while we were pleased to see that the tools installed and ran without a hiccup, it was hard to be delighted about the eventual score of just 23 – a long way off the 223 achieved by the same hardware using ARM-native video tools in macOS. Even if you give Windows four cores to play with, Advanced Installer Architect 16.5 Serial Key only scales linearly to an overall score of 45. 

Still, this doesn’t make WoA unusable at all. Performance is about on par with a lightweight Windows laptop from 2015, and while we wouldn’t want to do everything in that environment, it’s perfectly fine for the odd individual task. Since the Windows system itself is running natively on ARM, the whole caboodle feels more responsive than you’d expect anyway – and there’s surely scope to improve translation performance in future builds. 

Parallels Desktop 16.5 review: Verdict 

Barely six months after the M1 processor was unveiled to the world, Parallels Desktop 16.5 gives it a whole new dimension of potential. For that, it feels absurdly cheap, with the standard edition costing a flat £80. Alternatively, you can sign up for a rolling subscription, but at £70 per year it’s not an obviously great deal. As we’ve mentioned, there’s also a subscription-only Pro edition for £80 a year, which lets you virtualise up to 32 cores and 128GB of RAM as well as adding some advanced developer features, and a business edition at the same price which focuses on centralised deployment and management.

The fly in the ointment is WoA itself. It’s expressly a work-in-progress OS with unpredictable app compatibility – and so far Microsoft hasn’t made any real commitment to its future. In two years’ time it could be a thriving companion to the Intel build, or it could be an abandoned experiment.

For now, therefore, we can say only that Parallels Desktop 16.5 is an impressive proof of concept, and a fun and useful tool for tinkerers. Whether it becomes a true landmark release is down to Microsoft. Parallels deserves praise for what it’s put together, but we’d recommend you wait for the OS to at least reach a first stable public release before you invest in the idea of Windows on Apple Silicon.

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